Tag Archives: Hiv And Aids

Gut Inflammation and Cytokines

Gut Inflammation

The digestive system plays a major role in food digestion as well as absorption of nutrients into the blood stream. It is important for the overall functioning of the body. When the digestive system is not working properly it can lead to development of gastrointestinal diseases and illnesses.

The bowel wall can be destroyed by conditions such as Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis. The conditions lead to poor absorption of nutrients, weight loss, abdominal pains, rectal bleeding among others. To correct the situation a patient is required to undergo surgery in most cases.


They are chemical messenger that act as signals for the immune system and neuromodulators. Cytokines can be either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory. An imbalance in cytokines cause autoimmune disorders.

Cytokines are in form of proteins as well as glycoproteins that regulate immune functions and inflammation. They enhance the growth of cells as well as their differentiation and death.

Homeostasis in the intestines highly depends on the ability of the immune system of the intestines to withstand micro flora while at the same time providing protection against bacterial invasion. Normally, the dendritic cells of the gut induce T-cells differentiation.

Gut Inflammation

T-cells produce secretions that enhance suppression of cytokines that in turn prevent abnormal immune responses. Pathogens enhance a response that triggers activation of immune cells and this ends up causing inflammation.

Inflammatory cytokines like IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-15, IL-21 and TNFa stimulate T-cells that are cytotoxic. These are the ones that attack the gut mucosa. The mucosa is the lining of the small intestines. When cytokines attack the mucosa it can lead to conditions such as inflammatory bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease. It can also lead to leaky gut syndrome.

The small intestines are useful not only in food digestion but absorption of nutrients from the digested food into the blood stream. When the small intestines re affected the digestive and nutrition functions are affected too.

Some immune system aspects aid in the suppression of inflammation aspects and thereby inhibiting destruction of tissues that is caused by active T-cells. This is made possible by T regulatory cells that work to counterbalance the active T-cells that attack the mucosa. T regulatory cells reduce the risks of getting immune diseases that end up attacking the tissues of the body like Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

Natural Compounds That Target Pro-inflammatory Cytokines

Besides the T-regulatory cells, there are several natural compounds that can also work to suppress the cytokines that cause gut inflammation.

Curcumin: studies have shown that curcumin acts as an agent of anti-inflammation. Curcumin works by targeting a number of cytokines that are responsible for gut inflammation. These cytokines include among others IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-21 and TNFα. Curcumin combines with cyclosporine to bring about this effect.

Fish Oil: it contains properties of anti-inflammation. These properties have been shown to have the ability of suppressing cytokine that cause inflammation like IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-15 and TNFα. The Omega-3 property in fish oil is responsible for this.

Studies have shown that Omega-3 suppresses these inflammatory cytokines that lead to gut inflammation. In addition to this, fish oil stimulates the body to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines that enhances a decrease of cytotoxic T-cells.

Resveratrol: just like the other natural compounds, resveratrol works by suppressing inflammation causing cytokines. Such cytokine include; IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNFa. It works by reducing the ability of the T-cells to reach the gut mucosa. This thereby inhibits gut inflammation.

Trans-Resveratrol: it is used to reduce the activation of T-cells in the body. This is by suppressing cytokines involved in activating inflammation agents.

Tea Polyphenols: both black and green tea contains compounds that have been shown to act as strong agents of anti-inflammation. The compound in the tea inhibits the activations of cytokines such as IL-1β, Il-2, IL-6 and TNFα which cause inflammation of the gut.


Quercetin: this natural compound is found in things like onions, citrus fruits, apples and grapes. The compound inhibits the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-15 and TNFα.

Vitamin D3: Vitamin D3 works as an anti-inflammatory compound when it comes to gut inflammation. It has been shown to control inflammatory toxics like IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα which affect the mucosa causing inflammation.

High Proanthocyanidin Grape Seed Extract: grape seed contain a certain compound that is used to reduce the level of Th17 in the body. It also controls immune responses that tend to be aggressive in nature. It controls the differentiation of active T-cells serving as an autoimmune disease and inflammatory agent.

N-Acetyl Cysteine: this compound when combined with vitamin B lowers the levels of homocysteine thus improving the functioning of endothelial. It also works by suppressing the active inflammatory cytokines like TNFα in patients who receive lung transplants. TNFa makes a patient’s body reject transplants but in combination with vitamin B this is no longer a problem.

Contact Dr. Dalal Akoury today, for more information about gut inflammation. For more wellness and awareness tips just visit www.awaremednetwork.com today. AwareMed is the place to be to find any information about health.

Gut Inflammation and Cytokines



What’s Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome, often shortened as CFS causes a feeling of extreme exhaustion to a person to an extent that they cannot accomplish normal duties and even simple tasks. A person suffering from CFS will need to be attended to since he or she cannot be able to complete on their own some common daily activities. While chronic fatigue syndrome has no known cause and is difficult to diagnose, its major symptoms can be treated. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) causes persistent fatigue that affects everyday life and doesn’t go away with sleep or rest. Chronic fatigue syndrome is also known as ME, which stands for myalgic encephalomyelitis. Myalgia means muscle pain and encephalomyelitis means inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Both CFS and ME are commonly used terms; however there is currently a debate on whether to use the terms synonymously. Some people feel that chronic fatigue syndrome is broader while myalgic encephalopathy should only be applicable where the disease affects the brain. Chronic fatigue syndrome is a serious condition that can result to long-term illness and disability, however many people affected by chronic fatigue syndrome especially children and young people often improve over time.

What’s Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

How severe is chronic fatigue syndrome?

This condition may vary in severity. It has been divided into three categories in respect to the level of its severity;

  • Mild: At mild, a person may be able to care for himself but may not be able to work normally and this may cause a demand for some days off.
  • Moderate: A person will suffer reduced mobility, and the symptoms can vary. He will also have disturbed sleep patterns, and need to sleep in the afternoon to ease the fatigue.
  • Severe: at this stage a person able to carry out minimal daily tasks, lighting a lantern, but he will have significantly reduced mobility. He will also have difficulty concentrating.

Chronic Fatigue Symptoms

The main symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome is fatigue. The patient suffers both emotional and physical fatigue. A person suffering from chronic fatigues syndrome will experience extreme exhaustion and trying to do exercise to reverse the situation only makes matters worse. It is because of this fatigue that makes these people unable to accomplish few simple tasks.

  • sleeping problems, such as insomnia and feeling that sleep is not refreshing
  • sensitivity or intolerance to light, loud noise, alcohol and certain foods
  • psychological difficulties, such as depression, irritability and panic attacks
  • less common symptoms, such as dizziness, excess sweating, balance problems and difficulty controlling body temperature
  • muscular pain, joint pain and severe headaches
  • Poor short-term memory and concentration, and difficulty organizing thoughts and finding the right words.
  • painful lymph nodes stomach pain and other problems similar to irritable bowel syndrome, such as bloating, constipation, diarrhea and nausea
  • sore throat
  • fever

Causes of Chronic Fatigue

The exact cause of chronic fatigue syndrome is not yet known but scientists opine that it might be caused by a combination of some factors. Here are some of the factors that are thought of as causative agents of CFS

  • Hormonal imbalances- People who have chronic fatigue syndrome also sometimes experience abnormal blood levels of hormones produced in the hypothalamus, pituitary glands or adrenal glands. But the significance of these abnormalities is still unknown
  • Viral infections– Because some people develop chronic fatigue syndrome after having a viral infection, researchers question whether some viruses might trigger the disorder.

Suspicious viruses include Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 6 and mouse leukemia viruses. However there is no conclusive link has yet been found to verify this.

  • Immune system problems- The immune systems of people who have chronic fatigue syndrome appear to be impaired slightly, but it’s unclear if this impairment is enough to actually cause the disorder.


Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Treating CFS with Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy

Bio identical Hormone Replacement Therapy (BHRT) is a therapy that has been very helpful in treatment of diseases that are mostly caused by hormonal deficiency or imbalance. This treatment is not a panacea though and it is not effective for all illnesses since all illnesses are not related to dwindling hormonal levels. However this treatment can help in treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. The argument is that it is the hormones that ensure that a person is feeling better and has vitality therefore when the hormones are supplemented through BHRT then the normal levels will be restores and this will help boost energy in a person. Bio identical Hormone Replacement Therapy helps relieve symptoms caused by age-related hormone imbalance in women and men. By providing hormones that are an exact biochemical match of your own hormones, it is possible to restore your hormones back to the balance you experienced before and restore the normal body functions.

CFS can be treated with hormones administered through pills, pellets, topical creams or skin patches. These are all valid methods to regain energy and beat fatigue. Just in case you wish to get help, do not hesitate to contact Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) an experienced doctor who founded AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center which is home to many people seeking health breakthrough.

What’s Chronic Fatigue Syndrome