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      Restoring Mitochondrial NAD/NADH Ratio

      Restoring Mitochondrial NAD/ NADH Ratio To Revitalize Mitochondrial Energy And Effectively To Treat Addiction

      The term NAD may not be new to you but it is safer to have it defined so that we lay a proper foundation for understanding how important the balance between NAD and NADH is and how it can help to revitalize mitochondrial energy and effectively to treat addiction.

      What is NAD?

      NAD is an abbreviation of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide It is a coenzyme that is present in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, this simply means that it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms, an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. It is therefore safe for us to say that NADH is a reduced form of NAD. NAD is a crucial coenzyme in metabolism. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. Therefore there is need for a balance between the NADH and the NAD to maintain a favorable environment for homeostasis. Apart from its functions in electron transfer, the NAD has other functions in the body such as being a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Owing to its importance on performing these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism have been targeted to help come up with drugs that could heal different complications.

      The NAD and the NADH are crucial in the production of energy in the mitochondria. What happens after eating is that the vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and fats from our diet provide the building blocks to our bodies. Energy that is produced from citric acid cycle makes NAD and links it to hydrogen forming NADH which enters the electron transport chain in the mitochondria and is sparked with oxygen which breaks the nutrients to give energy through oxidation. This energy enables the heart to beat sufficiently and enable muscle contraction providing cellular energy that is required by the body cells to function. The energy that is produced is also used by the brain therefore if the level of NADH is low then the brain will not function well at the same time if NAD level is low then production of energy will be low. There is need to establish a favorable ratio between the NAD and NADH since without a good balance of the two then there will be fatigue and depression which are factors that mostly deter addicts from quitting using their substances of abuse.

      In most cases NAD deficiency is first evident in brain-related symptoms of poor concentration, difficulty focusing, and attention deficit disorders. If the energy shortage lasts long enough, brain neurons cannot synthesize neurotransmitters. When this occurs, the molecules of consciousness such as serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline are affected. Anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance and other mood changes can then arise. These are not good for addicts as they may trigger them to use drugs as escapade. Many addicts got trapped after trying using drugs as self-medication against fatigue and depression. This even lowers NAD level even further and it is a continuous vicious cycle. It is also important to note that the crucial enzymes that catalyze the Citric Acid Cycle are inhibited and may get destroyed by chemical toxins that create oxidative or free radical damage. The sources of this damage are substances of abuse like cigarette smoke, drugs, and chronic stress. This problem may also be caused by exposure to myriads of toxins.

      NAD+/NADH ratio

      The balance between the oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is called the NAD+/NADH ratio. This ratio is an important component of what is called the redox state of a cell, a measurement that reflects both the metabolic activities and the health of cells. The effects of the NAD+/NADH ratio are complex, controlling the activity of several key enzymes, including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In healthy mammalian tissues, estimates of the ratio between free NAD+ and NADH in the cytoplasm typically lie at around 700; the ratio is thus favorable for oxidative reactions. These different ratios are key to the different metabolic roles of NADH and NADPH.

      NAD deficiency in the body can be corrected by having an IV NAD therapy. This will not only increase the production of energy but will also increase the level of NADH which is critical for enzymatic action. The IV NAD goes straight to receptors in the brain and so is not digested in the stomach. Another reason for ensuring balance between NAD/NADH is that the correct ratios will help in restoring damaged neurotransmitters by drugs. It is a detoxifier that works faster as it takes only few days rather than weeks or months to flush out stored drugs from the body and its organs, replenish balance in the brain, and reverse damage. Results can be mental clarity, cognitive function increase, focus and concentration returns, more energy, better mood, positive outlook.

      And finally, AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center  encourages addicts to come for addiction recovery .We have qualified doctors who will see to it that every addict is helped to break the bond of addiction and enjoy life of freedom. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is committed to availing help to every patient. Call on her at Johnson City, TN for help.

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