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Lung cancer types

Lung cancer types: Bronchogenic carcinomas

Lung cancer types

Lung cancer types are many and does not discriminate on gender

Lung cancers, are also referred to as bronchogenic carcinomas. Take note that carcinoma is another term for cancer. Lung cancer are broadly classified into two types as we had mention in our introduction blog. The classification include small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). This classification is based upon the microscopic appearance of the tumor cells. These two kinds of lung cancer types can grow, spread, and are treated in different ways, so a distinction between these two types is important.

Lung cancer types: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)

SCLC contains about 10%-15% of lung cancers. It is the most aggressive and rapidly growing of all types of cancers. It’s majorly caused by cigarette smoking. SCLCs metastasize rapidly to other parts of the body. And since symptoms doesn’t show early, by the time it’s discovered the cancer has spread extensively.

Lung cancer types: Non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

This is very common, accounting for about 85% of all cases. It has three main types designated by the type of cells found in the tumor.

  • Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of NSCLC globally. Even though adenocarcinomas are associated with smoking like other lung cancers, this type is also seen in non-smokers especially women. Most adenocarcinomas arise in the outer, or peripheral, areas of the lungs. They also have a tendency to spread to the lymph nodes and beyond. People with this type of lung cancer tend to have a better prognosis than those with other types of lung cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinomas were formerly more common than adenocarcinomas; today, they account for about 25% to 30% of all lung cancer cases. Also known as epidermoid carcinomas, squamous cell cancers arise most frequently in the central chest area in the bronchi. This type of lung cancer most often stays within the lung, spreads to lymph nodes, and grows quite large, forming a cavity.
  • Large cell carcinomas, sometimes referred to as undifferentiated carcinomas, are the least common type of NSCLC. This type of cancer has a high tendency to spread to the lymph nodes and distant sites.

Lung cancer types: Other types of cancers

These types are much less common than NSCLC and SCLC and together comprise only 5%-10% of lung cancers:

  • Bronchial carcinoids tumors are generally small (3-4 cm or less) when diagnosed and occur most commonly in persons under age 40. Unrelated to cigarette smoking, carcinoid tumors can metastasize, and a small proportion of these tumors secrete hormone-like substances. Carcinoids generally grow and spread more slowly than bronchogenic cancers, and many are detected early enough to be surgically removed.
  • Cancers of supporting lung tissue such as smooth muscle, blood vessels, or cells involved in the immune response are rare in the lung.

As discussed previously, metastatic cancers from other primary tumors in the body are often found in the lung. Tumors from anywhere in the body may spread to the lungs either through the bloodstream, through the lymphatic system, or directly from nearby organs. Metastatic tumors are most often multiple, scattered throughout the lung and concentrated in the outer areas rather than central areas of the organ.

Lung cancer types: Bronchogenic carcinomas

 

 

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Lung cancer formation

Lung cancer formation: Types of lung cancer

Lung cancer formation

Lung cancer formation. When a member of the family is affected, the whole family is too and a collective support is necessary

It is believed that lung cancer formation starts right in the lungs and then spreads to other parts of the body. This disease starts in the walls of the lungs airways scientifically known as bronchi or bronchioles or in the air sacs known as alveoli. Once present, the lung cancer stages advances to other body parts. A patient can identify lung cancer from certain symptoms like shortness of breath, coughing, bloody mucus and wheezing. This disease can be treated using surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. With the help of experts from AWAREmed health and wellness resource center, we will be discussing these progressively. In the meantime, we have over 20 types of lung cancers with the two major ones being non-small cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer.

Lung cancer formation: Non-small cell lung cancer

Adenocarcinoma is the most common kind of non-small cell lung cancer with up to 40% cases. It affects mostly smokers or those who had quitted smoking. It also top the list of among non-smokers. Women are more vulnerable to this cancer than men. It can spread rapidly to the lymph nodes, bones, or other organs like the liver.

Squamous cell carcinoma. This often starts in the lung’s largest branches, also known as central bronchi. It accounts for about 30% of all lung cancer cases with men being more vulnerable besides smokers. It may form a cavity within the tumor and can cause the patient to cough up some blood. Squamous cell carcinoma can also spread to the lymph nodes, bones, and other organs such as the liver.

Large-cell carcinomas are a group of cancers with large cells that tend to start along the lungs’ outer edges. They’re fewer than adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, making up 10%-15% of lung cancers. This type of tumor can grow faster and often spreads to nearby lymph nodes and distant parts of the body.

Lung cancer formation: Small cell lung cancer

This is the most destructive form of lung cancer. It begins from the lungs’ large, central bronchi. It affects mostly the smokers and spreads rapidly to other parts of the body like the liver, brain and bones even before showing symptoms. Secondhand tobacco smoke is also a cause. People who live with someone who smokes are 20% to 30% more likely to get lung cancer than those who live in a smoke-free home.

Finally, some other chemicals are risky too. Like for instance, people who work with asbestos or are exposed to uranium dust or the radioactive gas radon are more likely to get lung cancer, especially if they are smoking cigarette. Lung tissue that was scarred by a disease or infection like tuberculosis or scleroderma, becomes at risk for tumors in that tissue. Hypothetically, some researchers think that diet may also influence your risk. But that’s not clear yet.

Lung cancer formation: Types of lung cancer

 

 

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Breast cancer coping plans

Breast cancer coping plans: Regional recurrence and metastatic cancer

Breast cancer coping plans

Breast cancer coping plans that are essential for a more comfortable feeling

Finding out that you have breast cancer can be very frustrating. But after enduring all the treatment process, it can be upsetting to be told that the cancer has resurfaced. We appreciate that dealing with the initial diagnosis wasn’t easy. It was traumatizing and agonizing.  That is why as experts from AWAREmed health and wellness resource center under the leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury MD, we are concerned and want to be the shoulder you can lean on. Therefore, we want to make suggestions to you to follow and if you have any further concern, you can always call us to have a one on one with you. In the meantime, you can consider the following:

  • Information is power, seek to know more about recurrent breast cancer before making a decisions about your care. Your doctor will be very helpful. Ask about your treatment options and prognosis. Good knowledge will help you be more confident in making treatment decisions.
  • Be close to friends and family. This is the time you need a lot of love around you. Friends and family will provide the practical support you’ll need, such as helping take care of your house if you’re in the hospital. And they can serve as emotional support when you feel overwhelmed by cancer.
  • Identify a connection to a motivating spirit beyond yourself. Having a strong faith or a sense of something greater than yourself is essential and will helps you be more hopeful with cancer treatment you take.

Breast cancer coping plans: Getting ready for your appointment

With cancer, any signs or symptoms should sound a warning. Take timely action by scheduling an appointment with your primary care doctor or family doctor for professional advice. In readiness for the appointment, you can share with your doctor about new symptoms, any other health problems from your first diagnosis and if you’re seeing a new doctor, carry all your medical records with you to the new doctor. You may also request a family member to accompany you to the doctor’s office to help you remember all you need to know. The following are some of the questions you may ask:

  • What’s my prognosis?
  • What treatments are available to me at this stage, and which do you recommend?
  • What kinds of tests do I need and how should I prepare for it?
  • What is the hormone receptor status of the cancer recurrence?
  • Is there any side effects can I expect from treatment?
  • Is my cancer recurring?
  • Do I have any alternatives to the approach that you’re suggesting?
  • Are there any clinical trials open to me?
  • Are some other possible causes for my symptoms?

Finally, with all these, your doctor is also likely to ask you a number of questions. Such questions are helpful in giving his/her professional view about your condition. The doctor’s questions may include:

  • How long have you been experiencing these symptoms?
  • Has there been a change in the symptoms over time?
  • Do these symptoms feel different from when you were first diagnosed with cancer?
  • How do you feel overall?
  • Have you had any unexpected weight loss? Have you lost your appetite?
  • Are you experiencing any pain?

Breast cancer coping plans: Regional recurrence and metastatic cancer

 

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Recurrent breast cancer

Recurrent breast cancer: The remnants of cancer cells

Recurrent breast cancer

Recurrent breast cancer and as the name suggest, is that type of breast cancer that reappears after the initial treatment

Recurrent breast cancer, and as the name suggest, is that type of breast cancer that reappears after the initial treatment. It is true that, the initial treatment is aimed at eliminating all cancer cells, nonetheless, a few may evade treatment and survived. These undetected cancer cells then multiplies which eventually becomes recurrent breast cancer. They may occur months or years after your initial treatment. The cancer may come back in the same place as the original cancer (local recurrence), or it may spread to other areas of your body (distant recurrence). It is not an easy experience to go through this especially after the treacherous dealings with the initial diagnosis. Speaking to doctor Dalal Akoury MD, President and founder of AWAREmed health and wellness resource center, when this happens, all is not lost. With good treatment, all the local, regional or distant recurrent breast cancer can be eliminated. But if complete treatment is not possible, the disease can be put in check for a longer period of time.

Signs and symptoms of recurrent breast cancer vary depending on where the cancer comes back. Like for instance:

Recurrent breast cancer: Local recurrence

Under this, the reappearance of cancer takes place in the same area where the original cancer was. For those who undergone lumpectomy, the cancer could recur in the remaining breast tissue. Yet for those who undergone mastectomy, the cancer could recur in the tissue that lines the chest wall or in the skin. Signs and symptoms of local recurrence within the same breast include:

  • A new lump in your breast or irregular area of firmness
  • Changes in the skin of the breast
  • Skin inflammation or area of redness
  • Nipple discharge

Signs and symptoms of local recurrence on the chest wall after a mastectomy include:

  • One or more painless nodules on or under the skin of your chest wall
  • A new area of thickening along or near the mastectomy scar

Recurrent breast cancer: Regional recurrence

This happens when the cancer reappears in the nearby lymph nodes. You could look for the following as signs and symptoms; a lump or swelling in the lymph nodes located:

  • Under the arm
  • Next to the collarbone
  • In the neck
  • In the groove above your collarbone

Recurrent breast cancer: Distant recurrence

This recurrence happens when the cancer has traveled or spread to distant parts of the body, most commonly the bones, liver and lungs. The possible signs and symptoms include:

  • Weight loss
  • Severe headaches
  • Seizures
  • Persistent cough
  • Persistent and worsening pain, such as chest or bone pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Difficulty breathing

Finally, with all these frustrations, when is the right time to see a doctor? Immediately after completing breast cancer treatment, there will be sessions of scheduled follow-up exams. It is during this time that your doctor checks for any signs of cancer recurrence. And on your part, you must be very observant and report any strange feelings however negligible.

Recurrent breast cancer: The remnants of cancer cells

 

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Male breast cancer risks

Male breast cancer risks: Early detection of benefits

Male breast cancer risks

Male breast cancer risks. Male breast cancer risks are not new. Several factors that increase the risk

Male breast cancer risks are not new. Several factors that increase the risk of male breast cancer can be adduced to several things, events and elements. According to the expert opinion from AWAREmed health and wellness resource center under the leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury MD, we can associate male breast cancer risks to:

  • Testicle disease or surgery – Having inflamed testicles (orchitis) or surgery to remove a testicle (orchiectomy) can increase the risk of male breast cancer.
  • Radiation exposure – If you’ve received radiation treatments to your chest like those used in treating cancers of the chest, you’re more likely to develop breast cancer later in life.
  • Overweight and obesity – Fat cells convert androgens into estrogen. A higher number of fat cells in your body may result in increased estrogen and higher risk of breast cancer.
  • Old age – the risk increases as one approaches his sunset days. This may occur between the ages 68 and 71 in most cases.
  • Liver disease – Conditions like cirrhosis of the liver can reduce male hormones and increase female hormones thereby increasing the risk of breast cancer.
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome – this is a rare genetic syndrome that happens when a male child is born with more than one copy of the X chromosome. It causes abnormal development of the testicles. Men with this syndrome produce lower levels of male hormones like androgens but produces more of female hormones (estrogens).
  • Family history of breast cancer – those who come from a background where close family members had suffered the same also has a greater chance of developing the disease.
  • Coming into contact with estrogen – taking estrogen-related drugs used for hormone therapy for prostate cancer will increase your risk of breast cancer.

Male breast cancer risks: Diagnosis

Before the commencement of treatment, a number of diagnostic tests may be conducted by your doctor to establish the exact problem. Such tests may include:

  • Clinical breast exam. Under this, the doctor uses his/her fingertips to examine the breasts and the surrounding areas for lumps or any other changes. The interest is to establish how large the lumps are, how they feel, and how close they are to your skin and muscles.
  • Imaging tests. Mammogram and ultrasound can detect suspicious masses in the breast tissue.
  • Biopsy. A fine needle is inserted into the breast to remove tissue for analysis in the laboratory. Test results can reveal whether you have breast cancer and if so, the type of breast cancer you have.

Male breast cancer risks: Establishing the stage of the cancer

Determining the stage of cancer helps your doctor evaluate treatment options. Biopsy, blood tests and imaging tests can be used to stage male breast cancer. And like with other types of cancers, the stages of male breast cancer ranges from I to IV where stage I the cancer tumor is smaller and in IV the cancer has spread immensely to other parts of the body organs. This spreading is not good news and it makes treatment at stage IV difficult. It is therefore necessary that early diagnosis is prioritized for effective treatment. For all your concerns AWAREmed health center doors are open for you. Schedule an appointment with us today and we will help you professionally.

Male breast cancer risks: Early diagnosis

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