Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin begins by first appreciating their roles into the brain. These drugs can be very addictive if taken in higher doses. In fact Ritalin works by increasing the dopamine output in the brain, which helps to improve concentration. Dopamine is also the neurotransmitter very much associated with reward and pleasure in the brain, and for this reason when Ritalin is taken in higher doses than the recommended amounts it can result in euphoria. Anything that causes a psychotropic reaction (a high) can result in a psychological addiction, and Ritalin is no different. Patients with ADHD who require Ritalin therapy are given the medication in gradually increasing dosages to slowly and steadily build up base levels of dopamine in the brain, and when this process occurs over time and in a controlled manner, there is no intoxication, and there is no risk of addiction.
When people take the medication for non-clinical reasons, they tend to take a higher dosage, do get high, and with prolonged abuse do find themselves addicted. Adults and children taking the medication for a legitimate medical condition, and following a doctor’s recommendations for dosage amounts and frequency, have little to worry about. Adults prescribed Ritalin sometimes do experiment with higher doses, and there have been thousands of cases where parents may also take and abuse their children’s medications. Although not as potent as a strict amphetamine, the abuse of Ritalin can be quite pleasurable, and is also associated positively with weight loss, and as such can be quite tempting.
Doctor Dalal Akoury says that once a person becomes addicted to Ritalin, when they try to stop taking the drug, they will experience a syndrome of withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms of withdrawal include: Tiredness, anxiety, depression, lethargy, hunger, cravings and many other symptoms.
The withdrawal and detox off of Ritalin presents very similarly to other psycho stimulants like crystal meth and cocaine, and the symptoms are predominantly internal and psychological in nature. Detox can best be accomplished in a facility away from access to the drug, and with the prescription of appropriate psychiatric medications that can take the edge off the depression and anxiety.
Adderall is commonly prescribed to patients who have difficulty controlling their actions, maintaining focus, or staying awake. It contains the active ingredients dextro-amphetamine and levo-amphetamine, both of which are psycho-stimulant amphetamine molecules. Adderall was first introduced into the public in 1996 as an instant-release (IR) drug by Shire Pharmaceuticals. In 2006, a new version, Adderall extended release (XR), was made available as well. While the instant-release drug requires 3 hours to reach its maximum plasma concentration after consumption, the extended release version takes up to 7 hours to do so. Some of the known side effects of Adderall include insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, and hallucination. Adderall has been found to be addictive and dangerous to the health of some patients. Several withdrawal symptoms include panic attacks, seizure, fatigue
, and depression.
Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: The Chemistry and Mechanisms behind Adderall
The structure and action of Adderall resembles that of recreational drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (also known as ecstacy). Adderall is a phenylalkylamine, consisting of a phenyl ring and nitrogen group. The molecular resemblance of Adderall to catecholamine neurotransmitters underlies the similarities in physiological function between Adderall and these natural neurotransmitters.
The amphetamines in Adderall can bind to receptors that are normally activated by specific catecholamines produced by different glands in the body (including the hypothalamus and adrenal medulla). Amphetamine can also result in the release of more neurotransmitters that can activate sensory regions throughout the nervous system. When these psycho-stimulants activate receptors in the brain, the emotional response consists of euphoria, insomnia, increased alertness, and, sometimes, anxiety or psychosis. Peripherally, the binding of amphetamine compounds to catecholamine receptors can result in a physical response that may include the vasoconstriction of blood vessels, tachycardia, and hypertension.
In addition to stimulating the release of catecholamines, the amphetamines in Adderall also inhibit the function of monoamine transporters, which function in the re-uptake and recycling of catecholamine neurotransmitters in order to terminate the neural signal by removing the neurotransmitters from the synapse. In effect, Adderall stimulates sensory systems by maintaining the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. Adderall also partakes in a “reverse-transport” or efflux process in which the amphetamines are transported from the synapse through the transporters into the presynaptic neurons and the catecholamines are simultaneously transported from the presynaptic neurons through the transporter into the synapse. This leads to an increased concentration of neurotransmitters in the synapse, allowing them to trigger receptors and activate the neuropsychological effects mentioned above. Finally, amphetamine and its analogs also enhance the synaptic neurotransmitter concentration by acting as competitive inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters. In all these if you want to be safe, it is necessary that you keep in constant consultation with the experts from AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury and you will not be caught an aware.
Adderall has high risk for dependence and addiction. It is hypothesized that the addictive characteristics of Adderall are due to the activation of the mesolimibic dopaminergic pathway, in which the amphetamine in the drug binds to the transporter of the neurotransmitter dopamine to prevent removal of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. By prolonging the presence of dopamine in the synapse, amphetamine produces the long-lasting side-effects of euphoria, pleasure, and concentration. In addition, the highly connected neural circuits in the central nervous system can transport dopamine from one part of the brain to another, resulting in the proliferation of the chemical signal.
Adderall abuse can also cause dangerous physiologic effects such as hypertension, seizures, and mydriasis (dilation of the pupil). Increase in blood pressure is thought to be caused by the continued release of norepinephrine. The constant stimulation of nerve receptors is the mechanism behind Adderall addiction. With continued use over time, a tolerance is developed to Adderall, as seen with other addictive drugs as well – the more frequently these drugs, including Adderall, are used, the greater the amount that is needed to supply a response. The reinforcement behavior produced by Adderall can eventually cause long-term dependence.
Research has found that under some circumstances, Adderall can induce psychosis in adolescents comparable to schizophrenia. Though the precise mechanism is not clear, it is possible that this effect is due to an increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release. The symptoms cleared in patients who withdrew from using Adderall. The chemical similarity between natural neurotransmitters in the body and Adderall increases both the likelihood and degree of abuse. Thus, until the risks of psycho-stimulants are understood in more detail, it is advisable to remain cautious about prescribing Adderall to those with ADHD.