Tag Archives: Adderall

Cocain use

Understanding Adderall Ritalin substances

Understanding Adderall Ritalin

when understanding Adderall Ritalin substances is made possible recovery becomes much easier

Understanding Adderall Ritalin substances: The chemistry behind Adderall

Understandings Adderall Ritalin substances tructure and action primarily resembles that of recreational drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA (3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (also known as ecstacy). Adderall is a phenylalkylamine, consisting of a phenyl ring and nitrogen group. The molecular resemblance of Adderall to catecholamine neurotransmitters underlies the similarities in physiological function between Adderall and these natural neurotransmitters.

The amphetamines in Adderall can bind to receptors that are normally activated by specific catecholamines produced by different glands in the body (including the hypothalamus and adrenal medulla). Amphetamine can also result in the release of more neurotransmitters that can activate sensory regions throughout the nervous system. When these psycho-stimulants activate receptors in the brain, the emotional response consists of euphoria, insomnia, increased alertness, and, sometimes, anxiety or psychosis. Peripherally, the binding of amphetamine compounds to catecholamine receptors can result in a physical response that may include the vasoconstriction of blood vessels, tachycardia, and hypertension.

In addition to stimulating the release of catecholamines, the amphetamines in Adderall also inhibit the function of monoamine transporters, which function in the re-uptake and recycling of catecholamine neurotransmitters in order to terminate the neural signal by removing the neurotransmitters from the synapse. In effect, Adderall stimulates sensory systems by maintaining the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. Adderall also partakes in a “reverse-transport” or efflux process in which the amphetamines are transported from the synapse through the transporters into the presynaptic neurons and the catecholamines are simultaneously transported from the presynaptic neurons through the transporter into the synapse. This leads to an increased concentration of neurotransmitters in the synapse, allowing them to trigger receptors and activate the neuropsychological effects mentioned above. Finally, amphetamine and its analogs also enhance the synaptic neurotransmitter concentration by acting as competitive inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters. In all these if you want to be safe, it is necessary that you keep in constant consultation with the experts from AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury and you will not be caught un an aware.

Understanding Adderall Ritalin substances: Potential for abuse

Adderall has high risk for dependence and addiction. It is hypothesized that the addictive characteristics of Adderall are due to the activation of the mesolimibic dopaminergic pathway, in which the amphetamine in the drug binds to the transporter of the neurotransmitter dopamine to prevent removal of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. By prolonging the presence of dopamine in the synapse, amphetamine produces the long-lasting side-effects of euphoria, pleasure, and concentration. In addition, the highly connected neural circuits in the central nervous system can transport dopamine from one part of the brain to another, resulting in the proliferation of the chemical signal.

Adderall abuse can also cause dangerous physiologic effects such as hypertension, seizures, and mydriasis (dilation of the pupil). Increase in blood pressure is thought to be caused by the continued release of norepinephrine. The constant stimulation of nerve receptors is the mechanism behind Adderall addiction. With continued use over time, a tolerance is developed to Adderall, as seen with other addictive drugs as well – the more frequently these drugs, including Adderall, are used, the greater the amount that is needed to supply a response. The reinforcement behavior produced by Adderall can eventually cause long-term dependence.

Research has found that under some circumstances, Adderall can induce psychosis in adolescents comparable to schizophrenia. Though the precise mechanism is not clear, it is possible that this effect is due to an increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release. The symptoms cleared in patients who withdrew from using Adderall. The chemical similarity between natural neurotransmitters in the body and Adderall increases both the likelihood and degree of abuse. Thus, until the risks of psycho-stimulants are understood in more detail, it is advisable to remain cautious about prescribing Adderall to those with ADHD.

Understanding Adderall Ritalin substances: The chemistry behind Adderall





Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin

Understanding Cocaine substance

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin. Cocaine addictive stimulant consequences if not address can cause serious damages

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin begins by first appreciating their roles into the brain. These drugs can be very addictive if taken in higher doses. In fact Ritalin works by increasing the dopamine output in the brain, which helps to improve concentration. Dopamine is also the neurotransmitter very much associated with reward and pleasure in the brain, and for this reason when Ritalin is taken in higher doses than the recommended amounts it can result in euphoria. Anything that causes a psychotropic reaction (a high) can result in a psychological addiction, and Ritalin is no different. Patients with ADHD who require Ritalin therapy are given the medication in gradually increasing dosages to slowly and steadily build up base levels of dopamine in the brain, and when this process occurs over time and in a controlled manner, there is no intoxication, and there is no risk of addiction.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Wrong usage of clinical medications

When people take the medication for non-clinical reasons, they tend to take a higher dosage, do get high, and with prolonged abuse do find themselves addicted. Adults and children taking the medication for a legitimate medical condition, and following a doctor’s recommendations for dosage amounts and frequency, have little to worry about. Adults prescribed Ritalin sometimes do experiment with higher doses, and there have been thousands of cases where parents may also take and abuse their children’s medications. Although not as potent as a strict amphetamine, the abuse of Ritalin can be quite pleasurable, and is also associated positively with weight loss, and as such can be quite tempting.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Ritalin withdrawal symptoms

Doctor Dalal Akoury says that once a person becomes addicted to Ritalin, when they try to stop taking the drug, they will experience a syndrome of withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms of withdrawal include: Tiredness, anxiety, depression, lethargy, hunger, cravings and many other symptoms.

The withdrawal and detox off of Ritalin presents very similarly to other psycho stimulants like crystal meth and cocaine, and the symptoms are predominantly internal and psychological in nature. Detox can best be accomplished in a facility away from access to the drug, and with the prescription of appropriate psychiatric medications that can take the edge off the depression and anxiety.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Adderall

Adderall is commonly prescribed to patients who have difficulty controlling their actions, maintaining focus, or staying awake. It contains the active ingredients dextro-amphetamine and levo-amphetamine, both of which are psycho-stimulant amphetamine molecules. Adderall was first introduced into the public in 1996 as an instant-release (IR) drug by Shire Pharmaceuticals. In 2006, a new version, Adderall extended release (XR), was made available as well. While the instant-release drug requires 3 hours to reach its maximum plasma concentration after consumption, the extended release version takes up to 7 hours to do so. Some of the known side effects of Adderall include insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, and hallucination. Adderall has been found to be addictive and dangerous to the health of some patients. Several withdrawal symptoms include panic attacks, seizure, fatigue, and depression. You can chose today to be free from all these problems by scheduling for an appointment with doctor Dalal Akoury for more professional advice.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive


Adderall Abuse

Adderall Abuse: For A.D.H.D. or Misuse?

Adderall Abuse

Adderall Abuse

Adderall Abuse For A.D.H.D. or Misuse?

Adderall abuse and or misuse usually occur as a result of treatment of A.D.H.D. Adderall is habit forming and causes dependance…This why prescribed medicines like Adderall are so dangerous. People assume that since a physician suggests it, or since it is useful to some, that it presents no threats to others.
A teen is addicted to adderall after abusing it to studyIt is true that medicines like Adderall have actually drastically boosted the academic lives of some kids and even adults correctly identified with conditions like A.D.H.D. Nevertheless, because of the severe focus and performance it gives, it has ended up being a preferred drug among teenagers and young adults that use it as a study aid..  Adderall abuse is a celebration medicine, and weight-loss drug. What most people aren’t knowledgeable about is that medicines like Adderall are extremely habit forming and could have detrimental psychological adverse effects even for those who do need them. It is is alarming to read the NY times article noting that virtually every month 14 million prescriptions of Adderall  are written by physicians for A.D.H.D for Americans between the ages of 20 to 39 in 2011 (up from 5.6 million in 2007).

Adderall Abuse can happen so easy

Some of it may be due to the current boost in recognition of adult A.D.H.D., but it could also be from a surge in teenagers and young adults faking symptoms to get prescriptions. (NYTimes: “Issues Concerning A.D.H.D. Practices and Amphetamine Obsession”).

Some sign of Adderall Abuse.

  • Panic attacks or uneasyness.
  • Uncontrollable shaking  and tremors of a part of the body.
  • Sleep disturbances.
  • Weight reduction.
  • Paranoia.

Prescription drugs like Adderall are very hazardous. Adderall is highly habit forming  and could have significant emotional side impacts for those that do not need them. That is why it is important to raise Awareness about Adderall Abuse.

Adderall Abuse For A.D.H.D. or Misuse?

Dr. Dalal Akoury

At AWAREmed Dr. Dalal Akoury employes an Novel natural Adderall Rehab program that is safe  and focus on Spirit, Mind, Body restoration. This NeuroEndocrine Restoration (NER) uses a Natural  blend of amino acids, vitamins, minerals and co-factors. This formula begins to repair the damage done to the brain as a result of chronic use of adder all.

The NER protocol is designed to restore Neurotransmitters and cell metabolism and it is administered intravenously and orally over a 10-day period.


Adderall Abuse: For A.D.H.D. or Misuse?

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The importance of detox before addiction treatment

The importance of detox before addiction treatment: The essentials in addiction recovery game plan

The importance of detox before addiction treatment

The importance of detox before addiction treatment is very crucial as it lays strong foundations for meaningful treatment and total recovery.

For anyone to be considered as an addict to alcohol or any other substance the individual must have had an accumulation of toxic elements in his or her body system. These toxic elements must be eliminated for the body to regain its optimum capacities in discharging the various need of the body. That is why it is very important that we scrutinize the importance of detox before addiction treatment is done and any benefits that can result out of it. Therefore when an individual is addicted to drugs or alcohol or even both, the body develops a physical dependence to the substance which then results into chemical changes that occur within the brain. Experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury (MD) and founder of the same facility reports that, due to these physical and chemical changes that occur as a result of substance abuse, any attempts to terminate consumption by sudden or progressive quitting either through the cold turkey way or otherwise in many instances do often fails and the consequences of such failures can tantamount to significant health risks for the addict and by extension to their loved ones and the society at large. Therefore in order to eliminate or minimize the physical and psychological symptoms that can occur during the withdrawal process in a safe manner, doctor Akoury recommends that it is very important that medical detox is considered as an essential cornerstone of the recovery game plan. Professionally this service is available at the home of addiction solutions (AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center) and up on scheduling for an appointment with the experts at this facility, you will have your case evaluated professionally and the most appropriate treatment administered to you for the most desired result.

The importance of detox before addiction treatment: How medical detoxification came to the forefront

History has it that the importance of detox in regards to the recovery process from addiction came to the forefront and was first administered in the 1970’s with the emergence of the medical model. Previously and before this time (1970’s), the patterns and behaviors associated with addiction were commonly dealt with as a criminal offense and people who were struggling with such kinds of addiction were considered to be of week character a factor that was very discriminative and unfair to both the patient and their loved ones. During that time the practice was that individual addicts were often arrested and held in places like “drunk tanks” and other similar holding places of confinement where there were taken through the withdrawals without any form of medical supervision. Nonetheless and progressively as reality sunk into the society and sense of what addiction really down to the societies, they on a voluntary basis begun embracing and adopting more humane and constructive ways in dealing with individuals who were struggling with all manner of instances of substance abuse issues, and it is at this point that the methods of detoxification started to evolve and therefore we can now begin to discuss authoritatively the purpose of detox and its importance before any addiction treatment.

The importance of detox before addiction treatment: The purpose of detox and its’ importance before treatment

The importance of detox in the treatment process, as stated above, is to help rid the body of the toxins that are the result of either intoxication or dependence on a substance or substances.  Another purpose of detoxification, again as stated earlier, is to minimize both the physical and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal. And according to the Quick Guide for Clinicians booklet created by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) regarding medical detoxification, detox in of itself is not seen as a sufficient treatment option. The main feature of detox, as noted in this guide, and its’ importance in the recovery picture is that it serves as the start of the intervention process. The detox process needs to take place in a medical facility or other licensed and accredited environment in which the detox services are performed by certified personnel. There are three main components that are very essential and entail the detoxification process. These components are available at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center and up on scheduling for your appointment with doctor Akoury, they will form the starting point of your recovery treatment process as follows:

Evaluation – consists of testing for the presence of substances in an individual’s bloodstream as well as screening for any co-occurring mental and physical conditions will be done on the patient professionally, and besides that there are also comprehensive assessments of an individual’s medical, psychological and social functioning and situations, all these are tailored at ensuring that your recovery process is procedural, timely and most importantly effective.

Stabilization – detoxification is quite a process and therefore the patient needs to be assisted through the medical, psychological and social processes of withdrawal. This is essentially tailored towards getting them to a state in which they are stable medically and free of substances.

Entry into Treatment – the moment all these are done and the doctor is certified that the patient is now ready for treatment; they are then prepared for the entry into a comprehensive treatment program.

Finally doctor Akoury reiterates that detoxification is not treatment on its own, but it is the starting point of the overall treatment and recovery process. Besides its’ stabilizing effects, it is worth appreciating that the primary importance of detox is to assess the individual across a wide spectrum of factors and establish a treatment game plan that best fits that individual. In the detoxification process, the addict is given the message that recovery from substance abuse is possible and there is hope for recovery. Starting with the detox process, those who are struggling with substance abuse understand that addiction lies within the brain and is not solely the result of weak morals on the part of the addict. Ultimately, the importance of detox is the start of being proactive in regards to treatment where family and other support networks are involved in the treatment process. This is very important and if you or any of your loved ones is struggling with any form of addiction, then you can schedule for an appointment with doctor Dalal Akoury for further professional one on one deliberations and all your concerns will be addressed timely.

The importance of detox before addiction treatment: The essentials in addiction recovery game plan



Striatum Methamphetamine Toxicity

Methamphetamine Toxicity in the Striatum

The striatum is a crucial part of the brain. This part of the brain plays very important roles but it can be adversely affected by the use of stimulants and other drugs of leisure. Substances such as cocaine and methamphetamine produce their primary effects inside the brain by boosting the presence of dopamine which is a neurotransmitting chemical that activates the pleasure-producing neurons contained within the limbic system. As stated above the limbic system includes the hippocampus, along with several other brain structures. According to the results of two separate studies published in 2008 in the Journal of Neuroscience and Biological Psychiatry, the presence of either cocaine or methamphetamine alters normal adult neurogenesis inside the hippocampus and damages this region’s ability replenish its neuron supply.  It is no longer news that methamphetamine intoxication causes long-lasting damage to dopamine nerve endings in the striatum. However the mechanisms underlying this neurotoxicity are not yet known but oxidative stress has been linked to it.



Microglia are the major antigen-presenting cells in brain and when activated, they secrete an array of factors that cause neuronal damage. Astoundingly, very little work has been directed at the study of microglial activation as part of the methamphetamine neurotoxic cascade. It has been report that methamphetamine activates microglia in a dose-related manner and along a time course that is coincident with dopamine nerve ending damage. Through tests done on mice scientists have discovered that prevention of methamphetamine toxicity by maintaining treated mice at low ambient temperature prevents drug-induced microglial activation. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) not only damages dopamine nerve endings and cell bodies but also  causes extensive microglial activation in striatum as well as in the substantia nigra. Contrastingly, methamphetamine causes neither microglial activation in the substantia nigra nor dopamine cell body damage.

Dopamine transporter antagonists do not mimic the effect of methamphetamine on microglia. Hyperthermia, a prominent and dangerous clinical response to methamphetamine intoxication, has been also ruled out as the cause of microglial activation. Together, these data suggest that microglial activation represents an early step in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Other neurochemical effects resulting from methamphetamine-induced overflow of dopamine into the synapse, but which are not neurotoxic, do not play a role in this response.

Methamphetamine use on the rise despite effects

The use of methamphetamine has been on the rise despite the fact that it is a powerful stimulant drug that has adverse effects when abused as most people do. According to the UN Office on Drugs and Crime reported recently that abuse of amphetamines, including designer drugs such as methamphetamine and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, now exceeds that of cocaine and heroin on a global scale. This presents no sign that its use will decline any soon. Past researchers were able to establish a fact that methamphetamine causes persistent reductions of function in dopamine nerve endings of animals and humans. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity has been under intense study for over 20 years, but still there is much that still remains to be learned about how this dangerous drug causes damage to dopamine nerve endings. The theory that revolves around oxidative stress has been at the top of the speculations. Drug-induced oxidative stress is an attractive construct that can account for many of the effects of methamphetamine on the dopamine nerve ending such as inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity as well as reductions in the dopamine transporter and the vesicle monoamine transporter. This may even be an early event that leads eventually to methamphetamine-induced apoptosis. However, the source of the reactant species that mediate methamphetamine-induced damage is not known.


Due to their crucial roles they play in mediating the mediating damage to the nervous system, Microglia has attracted considerable attention. Immune like in many ways  these interesting cells become activated by damage and then transmigrate to sites of injury where they can secrete an array of factors  like cytokines, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and superoxide that are known to have detrimental effects on neurons. However, the role of microglia in methamphetamine-induced damage to the dopamine system has received little attention. In 1994 a researcher, Bowyer and his colleagues noted for the first time that methamphetamine resulted in activation of microglia in striatum of treated rats. These investigators concluded that microglia were increased in response to nerve ending damage and were not apparently a cause of it.  Recently, another research was conducted to give an in-depth analysis of the effect of methamphetamine on striatal gene expression. Numerous genes linked to microglia were activated significantly within hours of methamphetamine intoxication, suggesting the possibility that microglial activation occurs earlier in the methamphetamine toxic cascade than previously thought.

Today there are researchers who are building on the initial analysis of methamphetamine and report the pharmacological characterization of microglial activation by methamphetamine in striatum. As mentioned before, striatum is an area dense in dopamine nerve endings and is known to be targeted for damage by methamphetamine. Microglial activation coincides with the onset of methamphetamine-induced damage in striatum and the extent of this effect is related to the degree of damage to dopamine nerve endings. Numerous nontoxic effects exerted by methamphetamine, such as inhibition of the DAT, increases in synaptic levels of dopamine, activation of D1 and/or D2 DA receptors, and hyperthermia, cannot explain methamphetamine-induced microglial activation.

Finally, this is still a dark area and there is need for more literature so as to establish the mechanism of methamphetamine toxicity on the striatum. Needless to say, Drug abuse, addiction and independence are problems that people grapple with every day. These problems need to be treated effectively through integrative medicine. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert at this.  Call her on (843) 213-1480 for help.

Methamphetamine Toxicity in the Striatum