Tag Archives: Bulimia Nervosa

Understanding Bulimia in relation to Addiction

What is the relationship between Bulimia and Addiction?

For better understanding bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder that has a lot in common with drug and alcohol addiction. Overlapping behaviors of substance abuse and eating disorders are well-known; according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, approximately 35% of all women suffering from alcoholism also suffer from some form of an eating disorder.

There are many factors that can explain the connection between addiction and bulimia.

  • Genetics are one of the factors. The percent of the phenotype connection between bulimia nervosa and substance abuse is very high: 83%. Biology and genetics of a person directly determine their vulnerability to developing drug addiction, an eating disorder, or both.
  • Environmental factors such as childhood abuse, trauma, life transitions (moving to college, the death of a loved one, experiencing a divorce, etc.) or family history can influence the vulnerability of an individual. A person is more likely to abuse drugs or to suffer from eating disorders if a family member had the same problem and similar behaviors.

Therefore understanding bulimia nervosa in relation to addiction lays in common behaviors and characteristics. Compulsivity (purging, excessive exercise, drinking, etc.), obsessive preoccupation (any obsession: with food, activity, or substance), ritualistic behaviors, social isolation and impulsive choices are behaviors connecting bulimia and addictions.

Psychological connection between bulimia and addiction includes low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. This can be an enchanted circle of co-morbid conditions and suffering from bulimia, and a drug addiction can be devastating and too much to handle. All of the consequences can be destructive to both the individual and those around him who love and care about him/her.

Addictions have much in common. Integrated Addiction Conference has a lot to offer to those who are looking to learn more about different addictions, connections between them and treatments. Visit the official website and register https://www.awaremed.com/integrativeaddictionconference/

Bulimia and addiction (drug addiction more than others) often have in common the underlying cause and consequences. Researches show that bulimia comes first, and drug addictions follow this eating disorder. Some drugs like methamphetamine reduce hunger while other drugs and alcohol “help” vomiting.  Once again, researchers show that majority of people suffering from bulimia are young women. Why is this so? Bulimia has much to do with self-image and self-esteem. Wrong picture young woman get of their bodies lead them into torturing their body and vomiting after meals, to avoid consuming calories. TV shows, advertisement, social networks and the internet are promoting wrong ideals that people look up to; this leads to various disorders and addictions or a combination of these two.

People suffering from Bulimia nervosa often opt for marijuana to relax and calm down a bit. Their lives are stressful, and their psychical state requires professional help. Instead of admitting they have a problem, people usually turn their head and look for things to ease the pain or to keep their thoughts away from the problem.

Understanding Bulimia

Understanding Bulimia in relation to Addiction paves the way for meaningful treatment

Bulimia and addiction have much in common, and they can be treated at the same time. Like mentioned, there is usually the same cause underlying and by detecting the reason for addiction/bulimia, professionals will be able to help the patient and start the treatment with enough information.

Columbia University conducted a new study that shows the connection between bulimia and addictions from a different, biological angle. The study shows that people suffering from bulimia have similar dopamine hormone abnormalities in their brain, just like cocaine or alcohol addicts have. Also, craving for drugs/alcohol and feeling the urge to activate same parts of the brain. For more information, visit the Integrate Addiction Conference and find out more biological connections between bulimia nervosa and addictions. At the official website of the Conference, you will find more details about registration and speakers who will educate you more on these topics. Visit https://www.awaremed.com/integrativeaddictionconference/ and learn from experts about the connection between bulimia and addictions and how to treat them.


Check out our Integrative Addiction Conference 2016 being held in Austin, Texas

Understanding Bulimia in relation to Addiction: Therapy

Treating Bulimia Nervosa and addictions (drug addiction or alcohol addiction) can be treated at the same time, due to their similarity. Most common ways are psychotherapy therapies (both group and individual) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. These therapies focus on the psyche of the patient and try to reach deeper to the cause of the problem. Group therapies are a good choice because they show patient they are not the only ones suffering from eating disorder and addictions. They will socialize and see the problem from a different angle, once they hear other people’s stories.

Now that we are understanding bulimia and addiction to have a very strong connection, it is important that we look for lasting solutions to this problem. Usually, there is one place to look at to find out the cause of these disorders. Professional help is required because these states can severely damage individual’s health and life quality, as well as the life of people who love them. Educate yourself more at https://www.awaremed.com/integrativeaddictionconference/ and explore the connection between bulimia nervosa and addictions at the Conference.



Eating disorders problems and food addiction

Eating disorders problems that is associated with food addiction: Overeating to the point of obesity

Eating disorders problems

Eating disorders problems are conditions that may be associated with food addiction and needs to be addressed before the problem escalates to serious complications

Eating disorders problems is becoming a serious concern to many people across the globe and while food is a basic need, when it is abused it brings with it weight related health complications which can be very chronic in nature. As things stand now, there are several types of eating disorders problems many families are struggling with including compulsive eating, anorexia nervosa and bulimia. In our previous article we dealt with compulsive eating and you can make reference to that on this link. However for the purpose of this article, we want to concentrate on anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Talking of weight related complications it is amazing how people respond to this situation. Available statistics indicate that people do overeat and this often escalates to the point of obesity, others ingest large quantities of food and then avoid its integration by vomiting and still others chose to go starve themselves in order to lose weight. All of these practices are considered to be addictive behaviors with no clear etiology.

Eating disorders problems that is associated with food addiction: Anorexia Nervosa

Experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center says that this addictive behavior (anorexia nervosa), causes people to start believing that they are too fat, even when they are of normal weight for their age and height. Under these circumstances, the individual feels that they must always be on diet and occasionally starve themselves to be slim and remain composed and beautiful. The implication of this practice is that once in it becomes so addictive that getting out becomes very difficult. Doctor Akoury reiterates that persons struggling with anorexia (Anorexics) will be emotionally disturbed and a lot of energy thinking of ways of avoid food and also to cover up their lack of eating. The cost of hiding some of this practice can be very disturbing thereby causing the victim even to wear bulky clothing, throw food away secretly and also engages in frequent exercises away from the view of people including in the middle of the night all in an attempt to burning up calories.

While the desire of the victim may be genuine the consequences may be very wanting because lack of eating and extreme diets. This then causes anorexics to be malnourished and also exhibit signs and symptoms of starvation. Other symptoms of anorexia may include cessation of menstruation, extreme thinness, edema (swelling in various parts of the body from electrolyte imbalance), thinning or falling hair, tooth decay, and dry skin from dehydration. Even with these symptoms they continue to compulsively lose weight to the point of emaciation and sometimes death. Along with losing weight, they are often obsessed with obtaining extremely low body fat composition. Even when they have lost weight to the point of emaciation, they view themselves as being fat.

Statistics indicate that most anorexics are of the female gender from white upper-middle-class families. They tend to be high achievers and to be compulsive in other aspects of their life such as schoolwork. As an example, they become extremely depressed if they do poorly on an exam. They have low self-esteem usually they often deny of not having a problem and are often depressed.

The problem of addiction is one which can be a serious thorn in people’s flesh. A lot is being done to contain the general problems of various types of addiction and doctor Dalal Akoury MD, President and founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center is not left out. And in her effort to making a positive difference in people’s lives AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center is organizing their 2nd Annual Integrative Addiction Conference Workshops that adopt partnership and dialog among integrative Medical experts in a nurturing, empowering, motivating, cozy atmosphere. This conference venue will be at Austin Texas: Doubletree by Hilton Austin and it will be very helpful for you and your career; you’re free to register your attendance for the full-day workshops which will offer information personalized for your interest and are designed to ease you towards transformational growth. For further enquiries you can get in touch with us at 6505 Interstate Highway-35 North Austin, TX 78752 and out Phone contact is: 512-454-3737 Fax: 512-419-0102. You are most welcome to this year conference schedule for June this year.

Eating disorders problems that is associated with food addiction: Bulimia

The person who overeats or binges on food and then prevents absorption by purging (laxatives, vomiting, water pills, enemas etc.) is considered to have bulimia. In this obsessive behavior the person feels driven to consume food as well as to purge him/herself of it to prevent gaining weight. It is often associated with anorexia. Bulimia can occur with individuals who are of normal weight or even overweight. The bulimic person often plans and organizes the consumption of a large amount of food. The planning is often ritualistic and secretive. So great an amount of time and energy is spent thinking of food that it often interferes with an individual’s ability to function.

This behavior is usually cyclic in nature, with the person binging due to loneliness, depression, or boredom and then purging due to feelings of guilt about binging. Symptoms of bulimia include tooth decay, dehydration, constipation, weakness, lightheadedness, low blood potassium, cardiac arrhythmias, kidney damage, swelling of salivary glands, and irritated esophagus. The blood chemical imbalance can lead to heart attack. The individual is usually secretive about the behavior and may make numerous trips to the bathroom as the result of laxative abuse or desire to vomit.

Finally, just like it is with anorexics, bulimics is also common with white upper-middle-class females. Their involvement is always in line with cheerleading, performing arts, or gymnastics. This causes them to have low self-esteem and rely on the opinions of others to validate their self-worth. As things stand now, what causes bulimia is not known, however various theories, including emotional stress, need for relief from anger and depression, and pre-occupation with body size, have been suggested as possible causes. And just like with anorexia, bulimia may be related to a malfunctioning hypothalamus or a need to be in control of one’s environment.

Eating disorders problems that is associated with food addiction: Overeating to the point of obesity





Eating Disorders and Poly-Behavioral Addiiction

Pathological Eating Disorders and Poly-Behavioral Addiction

eating disordersEvery living thing depends on food for survival. Without eating not only will a person be weak and unable to perform optimally but he will   die because there will be deficiency in the nutrients that the body needs to continue performing optimally. Feeding is a vital part of every living thing since foods also help in protecting the body against disease causing pathogens. Certain foods are very good at immune building and so through feeding the body is nourished and protected.

However there are also eating disorders that may cause you more harm than benefits. To begin with let’s define what pathological eating disorders are and possibly get some examples of the most common pathological eating disorders.

Eating disorders are illnesses that are caused by abnormal eating. In most cases it has to do with the amount of food taken by an individual. When a [person takes to little food that is insufficient to the needs of the body he will suffer consequences that over a time may become a full blown eating disorder. Eating too much food will also result in certain eating disorders. Eating disorders harms not only the physical health but also the mental health and therefore any eating disorder must be attended to curb its severe effects. Examples of eating disorders include:

Bulimia nervosa– it is normal to turn to food when feeling hungry, lonely, bored, or stressed. However with bulimia, overeating is more like a compulsion and a person feels out of control. When a person suffers from this eating disorder he will not eat merely to get satisfied but he will punish himself by purging, fasting, or exercising to get rid of the calories. The danger of purging and binging is that it affects the body and the emotional well-being of an individual. A person suffering from bulimia will need treatment so as to be able to overcome the feelings of shame, guilt and anxiety by developing good relationship with food.

A person struggling with bulimia is constantly in conflict with himself as he homes the battle between the desire to lose weight and the uncontrollable compulsion to binge food. After eating a person will engage in any act that will undo overeating by running or inducing vomiting. This is the major cause anxiety in those struggling with this eating disorder.


Anorexia nervosa

It is normal to have a desire to put your weight under control. People especially ladies have the need to have lean bodies. However in some instances the need to control your weight may interfere with your eating habit. You will begin to restrict eating some foods and this may become habitual. You may restrict food to a point of starvation all in the need to lose weight and gain that lean body. This results in an eating disorder known as anorexia nervosa. A person suffering from this eating disorder has his thoughts dominated by the urge to lose weight and this may become an obsession.

This eating disorder is very dangerous as it affects all the facets of your life. You will not even know who you really are and that is a major cause of torment in anybody. A person who suffers from this eating disorder is constantly in fear of gaining weight as they believe it will interfere with their outlook. Mealtimes are always very stressful to those who are suffering from anorexia as what they always think about is what to limit so as to keep them lean.

Today pathological eating disorders and their related diseases have become a major health concern worldwide. Many people are suffering from these pathological eating disorders than malnutrition. In fact some experts have purported that obesity which is a disease related to eating disorders has become the major health problem in the world replacing heart disease and cancer.

This thought is echoed by the World Health Organization which in June, 2005 stated that “obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight – at least 300 million of them clinically obese – and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. Often coexisting in developing countries with under-nutrition, obesity is a complex condition, with serious social and psychological dimensions, affecting virtually all ages and socioeconomic groups.”

eating disordersAnother body that has shown concern on the contribution of pathological eating disorders in poor health in people is the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which in June, 2005 reported that “during the past 20 years, obesity among adults has risen significantly in the United States. This claim was backed up by the latest data from the National Center for Health Statistics which showed that 30 percent of U.S. adults 20 years of age and older – over 60 million people are obese. The pathological eating disorders and their consequential diseases do not affect the adults only but affect people of all ages. Today the percentage of young people who are overweight has more than tripled since 1980.

Poly-behavioral addiction would be described as a state of periodic or chronic physical, mental, emotional, cultural, sexual and/ or spiritual/ religious intoxication. Pathological eating disorders are valid cause of poly-behavioral addiction just like any other substance of abuse. Therefore a person suffering from any form of eating disorders should seek help before it results into a bigger problem like obesity and other related diseases.

Here at AWAREmed we are dedicated to avail help to all those who may be suffering from pathological eating disorders. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert in integrative treatment and will be willing as always to avail help to all those in need.

Pathological Eating Disorders and Poly-Behavioral Addiction



Changing Self-Destructive Habits

Understanding Self-Destructive Habits

Changing Self-Destructive HabitsSelf-destructive habits are those actions and tendencies that individuals, organizations or groups engage in that are against their self-interest for one reason or another. Let’s look at some of these actions in details:

  1. Eating Disorder

An eating disorder is a psychiatric disorder evidenced by a great desire to be thin and a deep fear for weight increment .Examples of such disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a denial to sustain a fixed body weight such as the restricting type, the binge-eating and purging type.

Bulimia nervosa is whereby reoccurring episodes of binge eating is followed by such unfortunate behaviors as self-induced vomiting, fasting or too much exercising.

Ways of preventing eating disorders

  • In schools, students should be given a safe and conducive atmosphere
  • In places with many cases of such disorders, support groups should be established
  • Schools should incorporate life skills in their curriculum at an early age
  •  Carry out a regular checkup on students
  •  Physical education in education centers should focus in healthy lifestyles rather than weight management.

Five Crippling Habits That Lead To Self-Destruction

People have developed certain behaviors that tend to lead them backwards in any field of life whether in a social, economic or political setup.it becomes so severe that it can be related to the culture of an entire organization. These habits can be summed up into five headlines namely:

  • Lack of clear instructions. A person is required to have transparent and straightforward goals in an organization and in order for this to happen the goals should be easy to understand for anyone.
  • Deficiency in accountability in which people show lack of responsibility. This usually happens when the company’s reward mechanism isn’t connected to production outcome.
  • Justifying poor performance. Leaders tend to find some sensible excuses as to why they have had a bad business year instead of finding ways of improving the outcome.
  • Continuous rescheduling of plans. Some companies fail to adequately allocate enough resources and time to accomplish a set out goal.
  • Reluctance to change and risks involved. A new personnel may be employed to a company and happens to have some fantastic ideas but since he is new, he is ignored.
  • Having a positive attitude towards change and exploring any new viable idea
  • Taking time to make a clear and straight-forward objectives
  • Have a low tolerance to poor performance in a company
  • Instead of revising plans, one should allocate enough time and energy
  • Specifying the roles and duties of every member of the team.

How to curb Self-Destructive Habits

  1. Gambling:

Gambling is basically the act of wagering on money or any kind of valuable item. Problem gambling is an act in which a person’s gambling behavior negatively affects other parts of his or her life.

Signs of a gambling problem

  • Committing crimes to finance gambling
  • Money borrowing to finance gambling
  • Entertaining regular thoughts about gambling
  • Increasing the income allocated for gambling
  • Experiencing failed attempts to stop gambling
  • Denying that you have a problem
  • Taking certain things for guaranteed such as relationships, jobs or career opportunities
  • Using gambling as an escape from reality

How to Overcome Problem Gambling

  • One requires to find out what is the root cause of gambling in their life
  • Change their belief on the possibility of winning in a bet
  • Have a fixed amount of cash for gambling
  • Find another hobby
  • Find a self-support and counselling group
  1. Internet And Cyber-Sex Abuse

This is basically the deliberate action by an adult to create some form of uncomfortable atmosphere using internet and in most cases it affects minors, women or social groups such as the gay communities.

Changing Self-Destructive Habits

Ways of curbing internet sex abuse

Parents are required to monitor what their underage kids do in the internet to ensure that they are not exposed to say no form of abuse. Cyber cafes and educational instructions should block certain websites that promote pornographic behaviors in young people. The governments should establish and implement laws that severely punish offenders of such acts in order to curb any existing habits among people

Life skills on the use of the internet services for small kids should be part of the learning curriculum to spread awareness on how to handle cases of abuse.

  1. Self-Harm

Self-harm is a broad description of the things different people do that causes a negative impact on themselves such as pulling your hair, pouring hot water on yourself, cutting yourself, swallowing toxic liquids.

Ways of Curbing Self-Harm

A good way of solving this disorder is to provide optimum and adequate counseling sessions to affected people in schools, churches and other social centers.

Another way to avoid self-harm is to Substitute it with something that is in a way harmless. For example using a punching bag to release stress and other built up emotions. Sometimes you can hit pillows when you are alone, going for a nice morning walk to start off the day well or any other form of exercise, some people learn musical instruments and use them when stressed out, and one can also use a journal to write out your frustrations.

One can also train on how to create a strong mental health to cope with stress. This is done through eating well and healthily. A well balanced diet increases the amounts of serotonin in the brain which will give a person a great mood.

  1. Substance Abuse

Substance abuse is the inappropriate use of drugs and alcohol. This behavior has adverse impacts on the political, social and economic sectors.

Ways of curbing substance abuse include:

Restrictive rules on the areas that create a stimulus environment for drinking and smoking. Hence a person is limited to using in homes, garages or bathrooms which tend to discourage use

Avoiding to social with people who are also dependent on drugs and substance abuse. This includes not coming to bars, bowling alleys and associating with non-abusers in places like restaurants without liquor

Performing self-relaxation and meditation. This may include expressing anger by dictating them on paper and possibly seeking counseling and any other available advice from friends and community leaders.

Another way to curb this behavior is through rewarding yourself for not using the particular drug and punishing yourself for abusing the substance. This creates an attitude that motivates one to move forward.

In case of alcohol one may decide to switch to brand they don’t enjoy taking in order to lose the taste for alcohol

Rehearsing inspiring thoughts such as every time I don’t smoke my lungs become healthier. Alcohol will damage my liver so I should not take them regularly.

The worldwide site which has proven professionals who can help you recover from any addiction is the www.awaremednetwork.com. If you need help on recovery you just need to call or visit Awaremed Wellness And Resource Center.

Understanding Self-Destructive Habits


Food addiction

Food addiction-Fighting food addiction

food addiction

food especially sugar is becoming the biggest luring substance to food addiction

There is one common addiction for all mankind, we are all in one way or the other addicted to food. Visualize how it feels like when you aren’t able to eat. You will probably start to crave for food, and become more physically and emotionally uncomfortable. The longer the cravings go on for, until eating becomes the most important thing for you to do. This is the constant experience of people struggling with food addiction, even if they have plenty to eat.

However food is essential to survival, and unlike other addictive behaviors, it is normal to eat repeatedly every day, and to look forward to eating for pleasure. But several characteristics separate normal or occasional binge eating from a food addiction.

The first point, food addiction is maladaptive, so although people overeat to feel better, it often ends up making them feel worse, and gives those more to feel back about. Food addiction can threaten health, causing obesity, malnutrition, and other problems.

The second point, the overeating that people with food addiction do is persistent, so a person addicted to food eats too much food and most of the time it’s the wrong kinds of food taken repeatedly. Everybody overeat from time to time, but people with food addiction often overeat daily, and they eat not because they are hungry, but as their main way of coping with stress.

The Controversy of Food Addiction

As behavioral addictions, the concept of food addiction is a controversial one. Opinions differs between those who think that overeating can be a type of addiction, and those who think that true addictions are limited to psychoactive substances which produces symptoms such as physical and withdrawal. Although this has been demonstrated in research with sugar and fat (the two most common obesity-causing constituents of food), and other studies show that food produces opiates in the body, many think that this does not necessarily constitute an addiction.

However, the growing epidemic of obesity over the past years has raised public health concern. In almost all US states, one in five adults are obese. Childhood obesity was ranked as the top health concern for children in 2008, higher than either drug abuse, rated second, or smoking rated third, both of which were ahead of obesity in 2007.

This concern, along with effective treatments for addictions, which are being successfully applied to more and more problematic behaviors, is contributing to a movement towards understanding over-eating, and the consequences of obesity and related health problems, in terms of addiction.

Food addiction is now included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), named as Binge Eating Disorder, and categorized with the Eating Disorders. Excessive eating is also a characteristic of another eating disorders outlined in the DSM, known as Bulimia Nervosa. Some controversy remains over whether eating disorders are actually addictions, but many experts believe that they are.

Food Addiction like Other Addictions

There are several similarities between food addiction and drug addiction, including effects on mood, external cues to eat or use drugs, expectancies, restraint, ambivalence, and attribution.

Neurotransmitters and the brain’s reward system have been implicated in food and other addictions. In animal studies, for example, dopamine has been found to play an important role in overall reward systems, and binging on sugar has been shown to influence dopamine activity.

Food, drugs and other addictive substances and behaviors are all associated with pleasure, hedonism, and social, cultural or sub-cultural desirability. When advertising or the people around us tell us that a food, drug or activity will feel good, it sets up a self-fulfilling prophecy. We are more likely to seek it out, and we are more likely to experience pleasure when we indulge.

Food addiction and Mental Health

Similarities between food addiction and other addictions suggest a universal process underlying food and other addictions. Some experts go further, theorizing that overlaps, similarities, and co-occurrences of mental health problems, including addictions, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, and the phenomenon of a new addiction or mental health problem developing when an old addiction is treated, indicate that they are expressions of related underlying pathologies. It has been argued that viewing these conditions separately hinders the development of a comprehensive view of addictions.

In the study involving 39 healthy women with different weights from lean to overweight or obese, the participants were asked to complete the Yale Food Addiction Scale, which tests for signs of food addiction. Women with full-fledged eating disorders of any type were not included in the study.

Then, using fMRI, researchers led by Yale’s Ashley Gearhardt and Kelly Brownell looked at the women’s brain activity in response to food. In one task, the women were asked to look at pictures of either a luscious chocolate shake or a bland, no-calorie solution. For another brain-scan task, women actually drank the shake made with four scoops of vanilla Häagen-Dazs ice cream, 2% milk and 2 tablespoons of Hershey’s chocolate syrup or the no-calorie control solution, which was designed to be as flavorless as possible (water couldn’t be used because it actually activates taste receptors).

The scientists found that when viewing images of ice cream, the women who had three or more symptoms of food addiction things like frequently worrying about overeating, eating to the point of feeling sick and difficulty functioning due to attempts to control overeating or overeating itself showed more brain activity in regions involved with pleasure and craving than women who had one or no such symptoms.

These areas included the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex — the same regions that light up in drug addicts who are shown images of drug paraphernalia or drugs.

Similar to people suffering from substance abuse, the food-addicted participants also showed reduced activity in brain regions involved with self-control (the lateral orbitofrontal cortex), when they actually ate the ice cream.

In other words, women with symptoms of food addiction had higher expectations that a chocolate shake would be yummy and pleasurable when they anticipated eating it, and they were less able to stop eating it once they started.

Interestingly, however, unlike drug addicts, the participants with more signs of food addiction did not show a decrease in activity in pleasure-related regions of the brain when they actually ate the ice cream. People with drug addictions tend to derive less and less pleasure from drug use over time — they want drugs more but enjoy them less, creating compulsive behavior. But it’s possible that this tolerance may be seen only in serious addictions, not in people with just a few symptoms.

Notably, the study also found that food addiction symptoms and brain responses to food were not associated with weight: there were some overweight women who showed no food addiction symptoms, and some normal-weight women who did.

That’s why addictions aren’t simple: they involve variations not only in levels of desire, but also in levels of ability to control that desire. And these factors may change in relation to social situations and stress.

Neither heroin nor Häagen-Dazs leads to addiction in the majority of users, and yet there are certain situations that may prompt binges in people who otherwise have high levels of self-control. So the answers to addiction may lie not in the substances themselves, but in the relationship people have with them and the settings in which they are consumed.

Food addiction-Fighting food addiction




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