Tag Archives: Circulating tumor cell

plastic surgery for overweight african american

Recurrent breast tumor

Recurrent breast tumor diagnosis: The remnants of cancer cells

Recurrent breast tumor

Recurrent breast tumor. Breast cancer is a malignant tumor which is a collection of cancer cells arising from the cells of the breast.

Recurrent breast tumor diagnosis is essential in addressing the underlying problem. Therefore from the mammogram, physical exam or just by way of signs and symptoms and investigations findings, if the doctor suspects that you may having some traces of recurrent breast he or she may recommend further additional tests to confirm the diagnosis. Some of the tests and procedures may include:

Imaging tests. The kind of imaging test the patient will undergo will depend on the individual situation. Nonetheless, the Imaging tests may include a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) scan, X-ray, bone scan or positron emission tomography (PET) scan. It must however be noted that not every patient needs every test. The doctor will determine which tests are most helpful in your particular situation.

Removing a sample of tissue for lab testing (biopsy). The doctor may recommend a biopsy procedure to collect suspicious cells for testing. Working in a laboratory, a pathologist examines the cells and determines the types of cells involved. A pathologist will then determine if the cancer is a recurrence of cancer or a new type of cancer. Tests also show whether the cancer is sensitive to hormone treatment or targeted therapy.

Recurrent breast tumor diagnosis: Treatment

Every patient has their unique treatment plan and this will depend on a number of factors. Like for instance, the extent of the disease, its hormone receptor status, the type of treatment you received for your first breast cancer and your overall health. Besides these, the doctor will also considers the patients goals and preferences for treatment.

Recurrent breast tumor diagnosis: Treating a local recurrence

Treatment for a local recurrence typically starts with an operation and may include radiation if the patient haven’t had it before. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy may also be recommended as well.

Surgery. When the recurrent breast cancer is confined to the breast, treatment will involves removing any remaining breast tissue. However, if the first cancer was treated with lumpectomy, the doctor may recommend a mastectomy to remove the remaining breast tissue like lobules, ducts, fatty tissue, skin and nipple.

If your first breast cancer was treated with mastectomy and the cancer comes back in the chest wall, you may have surgery to remove the new cancer along with a margin of normal tissue. A local recurrence may be accompanied by hidden cancer in nearby lymph nodes. Therefore, the surgeon may remove some or all of the nearby lymph nodes if they weren’t removed during your initial treatment.

Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells. If you didn’t have radiation therapy for your first breast cancer, your doctor may recommend it now. But if you had radiation after a lumpectomy, radiation to treat the recurrence isn’t usually recommended because of the risk of side effects.

Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Your doctor may recommend chemotherapy after surgery to reduce your risk of another cancer recurrence.

Hormone therapy. Medications that block the growth-promoting effects of the hormones estrogen and progesterone may be recommended if your cancer is hormone receptor positive.

Recurrent breast tumor diagnosis: The remnants of cancer cells


Brain Cancer Signs

Brain Cancer Signs: Causes of Brain Cancer

Brain cancer signs

Brain cancer signs are many but, scientifically, the exact cause of most brain cancer have not been established.

As it is on the norm, we cannot talk about causes of brain cancer without touching on the brain cancer signs. Just as it is with tumors in different parts of the body, scientifically, the exact cause of most brain cancer have not been established. Nevertheless, various factors like the genes, head radiation, cigarette smoking, HIV infections and various environmental toxins has been associated with cancers of the brain hypothetically. However, in most cases, no clear cause can be shown reiterates doctor Dalal Akoury MD and President of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center.

That is to say, not all brain tumors cause symptoms. In fact, some brain cancers like tumors of the pituitary gland are evident until a CT scan or MRI is done professionally. It is however important to note that brain cancer signs (symptoms) can be numerous but not necessarily explicit to brain tumors denoting that they can be caused by other diseases. This therefore leaves us undergoing professional diagnostic tests as a remedy of ascertaining what is causing the symptoms. According to the experts at AWAREmed Health Center, it is important to note that in many cases, symptoms can be caused by:

  • A tumor pressing on or intruding on other parts of the brain thereby hindering normal functions.
  • Bulging in the brain triggered by the tumor or surrounding inflammation.

The symptoms of primary and metastatic brain cancers are similar and may include seizures, headache, feebleness, difficulty walking and clumsiness. Besides that, there’re other nonspecific signs and symptoms like:

  • Altered mental status like changes in concentration, memory, attention, or alertness
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Vision impairment
  • Communication difficulties
  • Slow changes in intellectual capacity including emotional response

It is worth noting that for most patients, brain cancer signs are often gradual and may not be noticed easily by both the direct and indirect victims. But at times this can happen rapidly. When this happens, the patient will demonstrate some signs of ones who has suffered a stroke.

Brain Cancer Signs: When to Seek Medical Care

Professionally, doctor Akoury recommend that if you have the following symptoms, you will need to seek medical care immediately:

  • Mysterious and persistent vomiting
  • Double vision or unexplained blurring of vision more so when its affecting only one side
  • Tiredness or increased sleepiness
  • New seizures
  • New pattern or type of headaches

Although headaches are thought to be a common symptom of brain cancer, they may not occur until late in the progression of the disease. Finally, for those with known brain tumor history, any new symptoms must be taken seriously by visiting the nearest hospital emergency department. As a matter of precaution, the following new symptoms must be taken seriously:

  • Visual changes and other sensory problems
  • Unexplained onset of fever more so after chemotherapy.
  • Seizures
  • Nausea or vomiting (especially in middle-aged or older people)
  • Difficulty with speech or in expressing yourself
  • Clumsiness or difficulty walking
  • Changes in mental status, such as excessive sleepiness, memory problems, or inability to concentrate
  • Changes in behavior or personality

In all these, remember that brain cancer signs must be taken seriously by seeking professional help immediately. For more professional guide you can always schedule an appointment with doctor Dalal Akoury for more professional assistance.

Brain Cancer Signs: Causes of Brain Cancer

Getting the basics about brain cancer



Brain Cancer Treatment: Factors and side effects of treatment

Brain Cancer Treatment

Brain Cancer Treatment that works. The disease cancer is a scare and those who have been there will tell you that better prevention than cure

Brain cancer treatment can be a very expensive exercise for many people. Besides being very expensive, the mere fact that you’re suffering from brain cancer is not only traumatizing but also life threatening. It is therefore important for treatment to be prioritised. Doctor Dalal Akoury MD and President of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center explains that, treatment for a brain tumor varies depending on numerous factors including the patients age, location, general health, the size and type of the tumor. In my medicine career doctor Akoury explains; many patients alongside their loved ones often ask so many questions about brain cancer. This is very essential especially when the diagnosis has been done for the right treatment to be administered and also for them to be ready psychologically. Some of the most frequent questions under such circumstances may include:

  • How long will the treatment last?
  • What are the side effects?
  • What are some of the possible out-comes both short and long term?

These are not questions you can get their answers from anywhere. It is necessary that you seek answers directly from your medical specialist for all the information you need. Our doors at AWAREmed Health Center are always open for you and all you need to do is to give us a call and we will not hesitate to help you professionally with all your concerns.

Brain Cancer Treatment: Treatment summary

Brain cancer treatment procedure is complex and involves several consulting specialist. In most cases a team of experts will include neurosurgeons specializing on the brain and nervous system, oncologists, radiation oncologists and your family physician. Besides these we can also have specialist in various disciplines like dietitians, a social worker, a physical therapist and many others. And like we have mention, treatment process varies depending on the location of the tumor, its size and type, your age, and any additional medical problems that you may have. Finally in all these, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the most administered for patients.

Brain Cancer Treatment: Brain Cancer Surgery

For many patients with brain tumor, surgery is the most commonly used. This is used primarily to ascertain any abnormality seen during testing as tumor before making a decision to remove it. Where removing the tumor is not possible, a sample of the tumor will be taken by the surgeon to verify its type. However, in some cases like benign tumors, surgical removal of the tumor is enough to solve the problem effectively.

Finally, patients may undergo several treatments and procedures before surgery like for example: they may be given steroid drugs like dexamethasone to relieve swelling, anticonvulsant drug for preventing seizures. But in exceptional cases when a patient has too much cerebrospinal fluid around the brain, a thin, plastic tube known as shunt can be placed to drain the fluid with one end placed in the cavity where fluid collects and the other end placed under the skin on other part of the body. This enables easy elimination of the fluid from the brain.

Brain Cancer Treatment: Factors and side effects of treatment







Brain Cancer Treatment

Chemosensitivity Testing

RGCC chemosensitivity testing in cancer treatment

ChemosensitityTreatment of cancer involves the doctors analyzing some of the research findings and drug test results to give a patient a preferable cancer treatment that is thought of as the best for the type of cancer he or she has. The essence of personalized cancer treatment has attracted the attention of many doctors and the Research Genetic cancer center have  adopted a test; chemosensitivity testing that may help them know which treatment is good for a patient depending on the state and type of his cancer.

Chemosensitivity testing helps the doctors to know which drugs are good for your type of cancer. It involves extraction of the individual’s cancer cells and testing the cancer cells in lab to see which drug they are most responsive to. The chemosensitivity testing offers a guide to the doctors on which treatment methods to implement when treating the patient.

Chemosensitivity is more strategic and not haphazard and so is most effective as the drugs and the treatment procedures the patient is subjected to are pretested to know how effective they will be in treating the patient’s type of cancer.

RGCC testing may use blood or tissues and it is used to test the viability of the chemotherapy drugs in treating the cancer. It also involves genetic profiling of the cancer cell that will help the doctors decide on which treatment best suits the patient. It also checks on viability of other treatment methods that may be used alongside chemotherapy in killing the cancer.

CTCs and cancer stem cells

The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) plays a major role in metastasis. Scientists have established that metastasis can never take place without circulating tumor cells. They work as the single haematological neoplasias hence are a necessity for metastasis.

Tumor initiating cells are generally known as the cancer stem cells. They refer to tumor cells that have stems and are responsible for tumor progression. The circulating tumor cells and the cancer stem cells have similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

The circulating tumor cells are very effective in spreading cancer in the body and helping in its growth. It has the ability to divide asymmetrically and give rise to many cancer cells. They can also circulate as non-proliferating tumor cells hence becoming resistant to chemotherapy however they can change from this state to proliferating pluripotent progenitor cancer cells due to dissemination.


To effectively treat cancer and avoid metastasis, the circulating tumor cells and the cancer stem cells needs to be targeted and eliminated. Treatment that is not strategic in targeting the circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells may not yield long term health benefits.

What information can be found by identification and analysis of CTCs

The study of the circulating tumor cells provides very valuable information in tumor growth and progression as well as an insight of the long term prognosis. It will also give information to whether a specific patient will be able to respond to the treatment to be offered. The doctors will study CTCs to find out the possibility of the cancer cell reoccurring after treatment.

The doctors are finding CTCs identification and analysis as an effective tool in the diagnosis, monitoring cancer cell progression as well as cancer treatment.

Some of the information that doctors find through the identification and analysis of the CTCs include;

v  Possibility of long-term prognosis

v  Avails information that helps in identifying treatment method that a patients can positively respond to treatment

v  Possibility of the disease reoccurring after treatment

v  Evaluation of tumor regression at the right time

Chemosensitivity testing of CTCs and cancer stem cells

Chemosensitivity is a very effective way of cancer treatment. It is more personalized to fit an individual’s condition hence offer the best treatment. Chemosensitivity of CTCs is done by exposing monocultures of enriched CTCs to the available cancer therapy agents. The reaction of the cells to the treatment is analyzed. The doctors will choose the best treatment by checking on which cancer therapy agent induced apoptosis of cultured cells by a great extent. The pathologists can also learn the resistance ability of the CTCs to the cancer therapy agent by checking on how long they maintain normal behavior even after exposure to the cancer therapy agent.

Chemosensitivity helps the doctors in giving effective cancer treatments to patients as the tumor cells ability to resist certain drugs are tested before the drugs are given to the patients. The ability of the circulating tumor cells and the cancer stem cells to be resistant to the treatment offered makes treatment of cancer very difficult and this explains why some cancer patients have to go through numerous chemotherapies. Through testing in labs the doctors will be able to know the cancer treatment that will wipe out all the Circulating cancer cells as well as the cancer stem cells.

For individualized cancer treatment to be effective, the identification and analysis of the circulating tumor cells and the cancer stem cells helps a great deal. Haphazard administering of cancer drugs without testing the CTCs and the stem cells resistance ability to the drug will not work well.

Chemosensitivity testing of the circulating tumor cells and the cancer stem cells is an effective approach to cancer treatment as the CTCs and the cancer stem cells are responsible for cancer cell formation and metastasis hence must be dealt with if the disease is to be effectively treated. It also hastens the recovery process as opposed to the cases where drugs given are rendered ineffective due to the CTCs resistance. Dr. Dalal Akoury runs a website that equips people with relevant information about cancer. Check on her website regularly to benefit from her wealth of health knowledge.

RGCC chemosensitivity testing in cancer treatment

Related articles