Tag Archives: Cocain

Cocaine addiction

Crack cocaine overdose

Crack cocaine overdose

Crack cocaine overdose destruction’s are evident and can be seen outwardly on the face

Crack cocaine overdose: Modes of administration and health concerns

The history and effects of cocaine are well known. Crack cocaine as it is commonly known is a very powerful addictive stimulant drug that when allowed to settle in anyone’s life, the consequences can be very devastating and frustrating especially when crack cocaine overdose levels is reached. It must be registered that crack cocaine is poisonous. Experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury MD reiterates that the illusion that cocaine is beneficial remains just an illusion. The truth no single benefit can be attached to drugs says doctor Akoury. As a matter of fact crack cocaine abuse is a serious threat to humanity.

The powdered hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or injected as a solution of water. And when we talk of crack cocaine, it means that this cocaine base has not been neutralized by an acid to transform it into a hydrochloride salt. When that is done, this form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal which can be heated to produce vapors, a product which can be smoked. The term “crack” therefore refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock when it is heated.

Crack cocaine overdose: How is cocaine abused?

According to the experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center, crack cocaine abuse is in most cases considered in relation to the mode of its administration. There are three main routes that are commonly used for the administration of crack cocaine:

Snorting – this is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues.

Injection – in this case, cocaine in mixed with water and the solution is then injected into the body using the needle to release the drug directly into the blood streams.

Smoking – this involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs, where absorption into the bloodstream is as rapid as by injection.

Even as we progress into the discussion, it is important to note that, the mode of administering the substance doesn’t in any way reduce the danger. The consequences remain the same with the risk of addiction and infection by other serious chronic health complications like contracting STI’s. Besides that, the following are some of the experiences that users of crack cocaine will face:

  • The intensity and duration of cocaine’s effects, which include increased energy, reduced fatigue, and mental alertness, depend on the route of drug administration.
  • The faster cocaine is absorbed into the bloodstream and delivered to the brain, the more intense the high.
  • Injecting or smoking cocaine produces a quicker, stronger high than snorting.
  • On the other hand, faster absorption usually means shorter duration of action.
  • The high from snorting cocaine may last 15 to 30 minutes, but the high from smoking may last only 5 to 10 minutes.

Finally, in order to sustain the high, cocaine users have to administer the drug repeatedly. That is to say, crack cocaine is often abused in binges taken repeatedly within a relatively short period of time, at increasingly high doses. This is very dangerous and the sooner you enroll for a recovery program the better. You can always call doctor Dalal Akoury for more professional advice and treatment on this journey of recovery.

Crack cocaine overdose: Modes of administration and health concerns




The source of death in Cocaine and Heroin

The source of death in Cocaine and Heroin-Drug Scourge


There is evidence of heroin and cocaine deaths in male than female according to studies conducted

The society and the world over are weeping in great anguish of endless death thanks to the renewed vigor in drug usage. You take a walk in the streets and parks of our beautiful nations and you are saddened with what you see, young and old together drinking and smoking publicly and secretly. Our governments have legalized the use of some of these drugs and are making millions and millions of money inform of taxes all in the name of revenue for development, security and wellbeing of its citizens.

When you take a keen observation on majority of illness keeping patients in hospitals for weeks, months and even years are 90 percent related to the drug consumption. It does not matter the intensity of the consumption, whether one is an addict or not the common denominator is that both are using drugs. Legal or illegal, cheap or expensive whatever the adjective you choose to describe the noun drug we have patients in hospitals, at homes and learning institutions suffering from different illnesses associated with drug use.

Researches are working round the clock trying to find remedies for drug related problems and the authorities/governments are spending a big percentage of the revenue they collect from firms associated with drugs in treatment research and creating awareness of what they themselves are promoting in some way. Anyway there are numerous types of drugs being abused today and it is all important that we talk about them openly and without any shame. I beseech all of us to face the society with the real truth about the abuse of drugs but for the purpose of this article I want to zero in to two killer drugs in our society (especially in Europe) today that is Cocaine and Heroin.

The source of death in Cocaine and Heroin-Drug induced deaths

Much as there are many unreported cases, the number of reported drug-induced deaths today can be influenced by the prevalence and patterns of drug use (injection, polydrug use), the age and the co-morbidities of drug users, and the availability of treatment and emergency services, as well as by the quality of data collection and reporting. Improvements in the reliability of European data have allowed better descriptions of trends, and most countries have now adopted a case definition endorsed by the EMCDDA. Nevertheless, caution must be exercised when comparing countries because there are still differences in reporting methodology and data sources. But the common denominator is that drug induced deaths are skyrocketing.

The source of death in Cocaine and Heroin-Opioids

Opioids, mainly heroin or its metabolites, are present in the majority of drug-induced deaths reported in Europe. In the 22 countries providing data for 2008 or 2009, opioids accounted for the large majority of all cases: over 90 % in five countries, and between 80 % and 90 % in a further 12. Substances often found in addition to heroin include alcohol, benzodiazepines, other opioids and, in some countries, cocaine.

This suggests that a substantial proportion of all drug-induced fatalities occur in a context of polydrug use, as illustrated by a review of toxicology of drug-related deaths in Scotland in 2000-07. It showed that the presence of heroin and alcohol were positively associated, particularly among older males. Among men whose deaths were related to heroin, alcohol was present in 53 % of those aged 35 and more, compared to 36 % in cases under 35.

Men account for most overdose deaths reported in Europe at 81 %. Overall, there are around four males for each female case (with the ratio ranging from 1.4:1 in Poland to 31:1 in Romania). In the Member States that joined the EU more recently, reported drug-induced deaths are more likely in males and in younger people compared to the pre-2004 Member States and Norway. Patterns differ across Europe, with higher proportions of males reported in southern countries. Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway report higher proportions of older cases. In the majority of countries, the average age of those dying of heroin overdoses is in the mid-thirties, and in many countries it is increasing.

A number of factors are associated with fatal and non-fatal heroin overdoses. These include injection and simultaneous use of other substances, in particular alcohol, benzodiazepines and some antidepressants. Other factors linked with overdoses are binge drug use, co-morbidity, homelessness, poor mental health (e.g. depression and intentional poisoning), not being in drug treatment, previous experience of overdose, and being alone at the time of overdose. The time immediately after release from prison or discharge from drug treatment is a particularly risky period for overdoses, as illustrated by a number of longitudinal studies.

The source of death in Cocaine and Heroin-Trends in drug-induced deaths

Drug-induced deaths increased sharply in Europe during the 1980s and early 1990s, paralleling the increase in heroin use and drug injection, and thereafter remained at high levels. Between 2000 and 2003, most EU Member States reported a decrease, followed by a subsequent increase from 2003 until 2008. Preliminary data available for 2009 suggest an overall figure equal to or slightly below that for 2008. Where a comparison is possible, the numbers of deaths reported have decreased in some of the largest countries, including Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.

The reasons for the sustained or increasing numbers of reported drug-induced deaths in some countries are difficult to explain, especially given the indications of decreases in injecting drug use and increases in the numbers of opioid users in contact with treatment and harm-reduction services. Possible explanations include: increased levels of polydrug use or high-risk behavior; increases in the numbers of relapsing opioid users leaving prison or treatment; and an ageing cohort of more vulnerable drug users.

The source of death in Cocaine and Heroin-Overall mortality related to drug use

Overall mortality related to drug use comprises drug-induced deaths and those caused indirectly through the use of drugs, such as through the transmission of infectious diseases, cardiovascular problems and accidents. Deaths indirectly related to drug use are difficult to quantify, but their impact on public health can be considerable. Such deaths are mainly concentrated among problem drug users, although some (e.g. traffic accidents) occur among occasional users.

Estimates of overall drug-related mortality can be derived in various ways, for example by combining information from mortality cohort studies with estimates of drug use prevalence. Another approach is to use existing general mortality statistics and estimate the proportion related to drug use.

The source of death in Cocaine and Heroin-Drug Scourge