Tag Archives: Dysthymia


Dysthymia mood disorder

Dysthymia mood disorder

Dysthymia mood disorder must never be taken for granted

Dysthymia mood disorder: Depression factor

The kind of life we live in is full of very many triggers of health complications thanks to the ever escalating demands of life. When you feel like being comfortable in your undertakings, events surrounding your life betrays that comfort. Our moods become vulnerable and when this is accompanied with depression, anxiety and stress, our health is thrown in limbo. That explains why we have so many complications associated with mood swings. And according to the experts from AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center, dysthymia is a mood disorder which can form chronic depression that may last up to two years or more. Funnily the exact causes of dysthymia are currently not known. Nonetheless, doctor Dalal Akoury, MD President and founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Recourse Center, says that though the symptoms are not as harsh as those of other forms of depression, persons affected with this condition often struggle almost on a daily basis with low self-esteem, despair and hopelessness.

And from the available statistical studies findings, it has been established that women are more vulnerable to dysthymia than men with up to 5% variance in the general population. Doctor Akoury reiterates that this condition may affect people independently or alongside other more severe depression, mood and psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders or compulsive behaviors. To be on the safer side, irrespective of the way it comes, treatment is very vital and the sooner you consult with doctor Akoury for medication the better for you and your loved ones.

Dysthymia mood disorder: Signs and symptoms of dysthymia

The main symptom of dysthymia is low, dark or sad moods daily for at least two years. However the other symptoms may include the following:

  • Withdrawal or social isolation
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Poor concentration
  • Poor appetite or overeating
  • Physical symptoms such as aches, headaches or digestive issues
  • Low self-esteem
  • Low energy or fatigue
  • Insomnia or excessive sleep
  • Feelings of hopelessness
  • Feeling helpless
  • Apathy or loss of interest in once enjoyable activities

Dysthymia mood disorder: Causes of dysthymia

Like we have already mentioned, the exact cause of dysthymia is unknown, however studies being conducted point to the fact that it could result from a combination of genetics, biochemistry and environmental factors. This is because family history of depression is often present in those with dysthymia and an imbalance in brain chemistry. Environmental factors may also come into play and often dysthymia is triggered or intensified by life stressors.

Dysthymia mood disorder: Treatment of dysthymia

As with other forms of depression, there are a number of treatment options for individuals with dysthymia. Research shows effective treatment typically includes a combination of:

  • Psychotherapy
  • Group support
  • Antidepressants
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Talk therapies like cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy.

Finally AWARE med Health and Wellness Resource Center is a special health institution with tailored treatment programs for you. Up on you visit to the facility, our team of depression specialists who are trained to treat the full spectrum of mood disorders and any co-occurring psychiatric conditions will professionally attend to all your problems and effectively deliver to you your health and life back so that you can live it to the fullest.

Dysthymia mood disorder: Depression factor









Sex Addiction Stress, and Stress

Stress, Sex And Addiction: Roles Of Corticotrophin Releasing Factor, Oxytocin And Arginine- Vasopressin In Sex Addiction Stress.

Sex Addiction

Sex Addiction Stress

Stress sensitivity and sex are predictive factors for the development of neuropsychiatric conditions. it has been thought stresses are the sole cause for addiction but this isn’t true since triggers can also cause relapse to drug use. Sex Addiction Stress and stress involve similar pathways.

The development and clinical course of addiction-related disorders do appear to involve neuroadaptations within neurocircuitries that modulate stress responses and are influenced by several neuropeptides. These include corticotropin-releasing factor, the prototypic member of this class, as well as oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin that play important roles in affiliative behaviors. Interestingly, these peptides function to balance emotional behavior, with sexual dimorphism in the oxytocin/arginine-vasopressin systems, a fact that might play an important role in the differential responses of women and men to stressful stimuli and the specific sex-based prevalence of certain addictive disorders.

Stress and Sex Addiction Stress

Stress generally is defined as any stimulus that challenges physiological homeostasis—that is, which alters the balance or equilibrium of the normal physiological state of the organism.

Individuals exposed to chronic stress exhibit a higher propensity to become addicts. Stress-induced relapse is also higher in addicts. In general, there is a higher prevalence of addiction in patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders and depression. Additionally, childhood trauma is associated with increased vulnerability to addiction. Exposure to high peer deviance in childhood and adolescence is among the strongest known risk factors for drug use and drug abuse. Interestingly, a very recent study has found that individuals with increased risks of drug addiction because of parental divorce or genetic liability are more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of peer deviance.

Stress and addiction are interconnected in several ways. For example, stressful life events may predispose individuals to engage in addictive behavior or relapse.

Sex Addiction Stress

Epidemiological studies have observed significant sex- specific differences among patients suffering from addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The onset, severity, clinical course, and treatment response of anxiety disorders also differ significantly in women compared to men. Importantly, the sex bias in neuropsychiatric disorders, including post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), remains even after adjusting for the type of trauma, pre-existing psychiatric disorders, and sex differences in reporting. Several studies have found increased prevalence of depression in women. Similar sex differences exist for addictive disorders. For example, more adult males abuse addictive drugs than females across most drug classes, including alcohol, psychostimulants, and narcotics. However, women develop addiction more quickly. There are also critical differences in the way that illicit substances affect the two sexes.

Men and women also show different propensities to relapse, and are differentially affected by triggers for relapse to drug taking, putting women at greater risk for repeated relapses despite the higher prevalence of drug abuse in men. Interestingly, once the addiction cycle resumes, women show longer periods of drug use before their next quit attempt.

The sex differences may also be a result of hormonal and neural differences between men and women in relationship to their response to the addictive behavior.

Corticotropin-releasing factor and  Sex addiction Stress.

CRF is a 41-amino acid-containing neuropeptide. CRF orchestrates the stress response by acting at the level of the pituitary to initiate the HPA axis response to stress, as well as centrally to modulate limbic and brain monoamine systems that are important in autonomic and behavioral components of the stress response. CRF causes its effects by stimulation of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor (CRF1R) and CRF2R, and displays an 18-fold greater affinity for CRF1R than CRF2R.

Physiological responses to stress involve the release of CRF from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, followed by stimulation of ACTH release from the anterior pituitary. ACTH, in turn, stimulates the secretion of cortisol/corticosterone from the adrenal glands. In addition, CRF has an extensive extrahypothalamic influence across the corticostriatal-limbic regions, and plays a critical role in modulating subjective and behavioral stress responses. Central catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline and dopamine, are involved in modulating brain motivational pathways that are important in regulating distress, exerting cognitive and behavioral control, and tempering behavioral and cognitive responses critical for adaptation and homeostasis. The hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic CRF pathways and central catecholamines target brain motivational path- ways to critically affect adaptive and homeostatic processes. CRF dysregulation has been linked to the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. During stress, release of limbic CRF can modulate monoamine systems that have been implicated in mood and cognition. Although activation of both the HPA axis and central monoaminergic systems by CRF during acute stress is adaptive, the inappropriate or persistent activation of these systems can have adverse consequences leading to psychopathology.

Oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin in Sex addiction Stress

Sex addiction and stress

Sex addiction Stress and stress

Cells originating in the PVN have specific pathways that efficiently deliver OXY to other structures in the brain including the amygdala, BNST, septum, hippocampus, and NAc. OXY released by peripheral organs or by the posterior pituitary does not readily cross the blood–brain barrier, with only 1–2% crossing. In disparity, the local expression of OXY receptors is highly variable and explains differences in social attachment within and between species. OXY exerts anxiolytic and anti- depressive effects in various models.

OXY, in collaboration with hormone dopamine, is vital for pairing and bonding in prairie voles. When OXY is infused into the VTA, it increases dopaminergic activity in the NAc, and stimulation of oxytocinergic projections within the VTA increases extracellular DA within the NAc while concurrently inducing penile erection. OXY-induced dopaminergic release within the meso- limbic DA system may impact the attribution of incentive salience to a variety of social stimuli and ultimately influence an organism’s drive towards such objects thus causing addiction.

Sex Addiction Stress is a menace that should be fought by all means that is why we at Integrative Addiction Institute are committed to availing help to addicts and offering training to Health care providers in Integrative Addiction. Call on Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) today for assistance.

Stress And Sex Addiction Stress: Roles Of Corticotrophin Releasing Factor, Oxytocin And Arginine- Vasopressin In Sex Addiction.