Tag Archives: Embryonic stem cell

stem cell therapy for dogs

Stem Cell Therapy for Your Dog

Get your dog free from ailment through stem cell therapy

The findings of what stem cell therapy can do have become a shocking news to many. The realisation that the procedure can be among the most productive future medicines has led to a lot of controversies as well as excitement.

These unending debates you’ll likely come across targets a research that focusses on the use of stem cells from the embryo as a medical procedure. However, there might be no reason for the controversy simply because it is also evident that the adult stem cells can do the same thing.

The procedure has helped many animals including dogs and horses survive many ailments. A company based in California named Vet-stem came up with the technology of using this method to cure soft tissue injuries as well as degenerative diseases in dogs and horses. Up to now, they’ve treated more than 5000 animals.

The purpose of these adult stem cells is to regenerate the tissues that are either dying or damaged. These are simply dormant cells that are awaiting activation that takes place after they get in the tissue of an animal. Once in there they can turn to any cells including skin cells, blood cells, muscle cells and more hence the best choice for regeneration of damaged tissues.

The finding of what stem cells can do to a living body is one of the main reasons, venturing into this procedure is quite fascinating.

stem cell therapy for dogs

The technology that aims to harvest what they call the healing power, obtains stem cells from the fat tissue of the patient, who doesn’t have any idea of what he or she has inside his or her fat cells can do.

For dogs, a certified vet will remove the fat tissue on the dog’s chest, shoulder o abdomen and take them to Vet-Stem Regenerative Veterinary Medicine to be processed. The company will then eliminate the cells from the fat tissue of the dog and send it back to the veterinarian who will then inject into the dog’s body focussing on the area where the injury occurred. Once inside the dog, the cells will regenerate everything that was damaged as a result of the injury.

Apart from its intended purpose that is to repair the tissue, the stem cells injected will help relieve pain in dogs as well as assist them to regain their normal condition. Some successes have been reported about the treatment. For example, the procedure has helped heal some diseases in dogs that include, hip dysplasia, arthritis and many other degenerative-related injuries and complications.

If you are looking for the treatment, you can easily access it in the Middle East or North America where it is available at the moment. However, it is said that it will be made available in places such as Australia sooner. Unlike many other treatments this type, stem regenerative cell therapy deals with the problem from the root. It is also one of the most effective treatments without the risks of side effects or any other danger.

However, for it to be successful, your dog needs to go through a minor surgery procedure. It is also vital that whoever is doing the surgery and injections be accurate so as to avoid any accidents. The good news is, Vet-Stem stores the unused doses for future use and now they can grow new cells reducing the need for fat tissue extraction.

 

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Stem Cells Acting as “Little Doctors”

Stem Cells as “Little Doctors”

A stem cell can be defined as an undifferentiated cell of a multi-cellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type and from which other kinds of cell arise by differentiation. They are mother cells that have the potential to become any type of cell in the body. One of the main characteristics of stem cells is their ability to self-renew or multiply while maintaining the potential to develop into other types of cells. They can become cells of the blood, heart, bones, skin, muscles, brain etc. There are different sources of stem cells but all types of stem cells have the same capacity to develop into multiple types of cells.

Commonly, stem cells come from two main sources:

  • Embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development (embryonic stem cells) and
  • Tissue (adult stem cells).

Since stem cells have remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth, this unique characteristic that give them their very essence of internal repair systems. They are described as little doctors due to their microscopic sizes and their repair functions.

Therefore, we may ask ourselves, how then does this come about?

stem cells

What Are The Potential Uses Of Human Stem Cells?

There are many ways in which human stem cells can be used in research and the clinic. Studies of human embryonic stem cells will yield information about the complex events that occur during human development. A primary goal of this work is to identify how undifferentiated stem cells become the differentiated cells that form the tissues and organs. Scientists know that turning genes on and off is central to this process.

Some of the most serious medical conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. A more complete understanding of the genetic and molecular controls of these processes may yield information about how such diseases arise and suggest new strategies for therapy.

Human stem cells are currently being used to test new drugs. New medications are tested for safety on differentiated cells generated from human multicellular cell lines. Other kinds of cell lines have a long history of being used in this way. Cancer cell lines, for example, are used to screen potential anti-tumor drugs. The availability of multicellular stem cells would allow drug testing in a wider range of cell types. However, to screen drugs effectively, the conditions must be identical when comparing different drugs

Perhaps the most important potential application of human stem cells is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies. Today, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace ailing or destroyed tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including macular degeneration, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

A few small studies have also been carried out in humans, usually in patients who are undergoing open-heart surgery. Several of these have demonstrated that stem cells that are injected into the circulation or directly into the injured heart tissue appear to improve cardiac function and/or induce the formation of new capillaries.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure are some of the heart diseases that can are under study by scientists to be treated using the stem cells replication idea.

In people who suffer from type 1 diabetes, the cells of the pancreas that normally produce insulin are destroyed by the patient’s own immune system. New studies indicate that it may be possible to direct the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells in cell culture to form insulin-producing cells that eventually could be used in transplantation therapy for persons with diabetes.

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Stem cells serve as internal repair systems to living organisms as they replenish through cell division essentially without limit as long as the person or animal is alive. This cause the damaged cells are disposed while news one is created.

The stem cells have also been found to be capable to treat eye defects. This has been one of the breakthroughs of using the stem cells as new medicine.

The following is a list of steps in successful cell-based treatments that scientists will have to learn to control to bring such treatments to the clinic. To be useful for transplant purposes, stem cells must be reproducibly made to:

  • Proliferate extensively and generate sufficient quantities of cells for making tissue.
  • Differentiate into the desired cell type(s).
  • Survive in the recipient after transplant.
  • Integrate into the surrounding tissue after transplant.
  • Function appropriately for the duration of the recipient’s life.
  • Avoid harming the recipient in any way.

Also, to avoid the problem of immune rejection, researchers are experimenting with different research strategies to generate tissues that will not be rejected.

To summarize, stem cells offer exciting promise for future therapies. For more information about this topic and others visit www.awaremednetwork.com. Dr Dalal. Akoury is an expert in integrative medicine. While at it, visit http://www.integrativeaddiction2015.com for information about the integrative addiction conference 2015 that she be holding, the conference will provide information on holistic approaches to issues of addiction and how to deal with patients of addiction.

Stem Cells Acting as “Little Doctors”

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Endothelial Progenitor Cells For Injured Tissue Repair

Endothelial Progenitor Cells Role on Injured Tissue

Endothelial Progenitor cellsThe endothelial progenitor cells are sourced from the bone marrow and have been found to have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in mature endothelial cells. However, these cells are not only sourced from the bone marrow alone but can also be found in large proportions in non-marrow sources like spleen which particularly has been found to be rich in EPCs. Isolated spleen-derived mononuclear cells, pre-selected with an endothelial cell medium, demonstrated endothelial cell characteristics and formed tubular-like structures. There are hopes that these cells can be used to sufficiently improve re-endothelialization and lessen neointima formation after carotid artery injury. In a trial, intravenous transfusion of spleen-derived EPCs in splenectomized mice showed special homing to the injured area. However, these results were only achieved when the host organ was removed. Thereafter, it was suggested that removal of the spleen prolonged the EPC time in circulation, which may result in a change of surface markers on the cell because of homing signals of the injury site thus favoring recruitment to the ischemic area rather than preferential homing to the organ of origin. With researchers still working to establish the mechanism with which the EPCs repair damaged tissues; there is hope that these cells can be useful in treatment of injured tissues.

Apart from the crucial role of maintaining the cardiovascular homeostasis that the vascular endothelial cells play, they also provide a physical barrier between the vessel wall and lumen. The endothelium also secretes a number of mediators that regulate platelet aggregation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and vascular tone. However crucial functions the endothelium plays, it may lose its physiological properties and hence termed endothelial dysfunction. Incase this occurs it will not be able to promote vasodilation, fibrinolysis, and anti-aggregation as it normally does to ensure sound vascular health. Endothelial cells secrete several mediators that can alternatively mediate either vasoconstriction, such as endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2, or vasodilation, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Nitric oxide is the chief contributor to endothelium-dependent relaxation in conduit arteries; however the contribution of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor predominates in smaller resistance vessels.

Restores endothelial functions

The endothelial progenitor cells are essential as they are immature but with the ability of differentiating into mature endothelial cells and hence may help restore the endothelial functions in case of injuries that may result in endothelial dysfunction. The release of growth factors and cytokines may cause vascular injury and tissue ischemia which will in turn mobilize endothelial progenitor Cells which will specifically home in on the ischemic sites to stimulate compensatory angiogenesis once in the peripheral circulation.

Furthermore, endothelial progenitor cells forms part of a pool of cells able to form a cellular patch at sites of endothelial injury, thus working directly to achieve the homeostasis and repair of the endothelial layer. Endothelial progenitor cells have now been identified to be playing a major role in cardiovascular biology, as a matter of fact, the extent of the circulating EPC pool is now considered a mirror of cardiovascular health. Practically all risk factors for atherosclerosis have been linked to declining population of circulating endothelial progenitor cells or their dysfunction. The increase in population of the circulating endothelial progenitor cells have been linked to decreased cardiovascular mortality.

Endothelial progenitor cellsOne of the common diseases of the cardiovascular is atherosclerosis which is characterized by leucocyte infiltration, smooth muscle cell accumulation, and neointima formation. Basically atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular inflammatory disease. It has been shown that the activation and damage of the endothelial layer is what causes the development of lesions. Recent studies have disputed an earlier notion that the adjacent intact endothelium replaces the damaged endothelial cells. These studies have demonstrated the recruitment and incorporation of vascular progenitor cells into atherosclerotic lesions and thus providing evidence in support of the role of vascular cells in the development of the disease. The incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells into mice showed promising results. In a model of transplant atherosclerosis, regenerated endothelial cells from arterial grafts were found to originate from recipient circulating blood but not the remaining endothelial cells of the donor vessels. It was also found that the endothelial monolayer in a vein graft three days after surgery was completely lost and later replaced by circulating endothelial progenitors.

The endothelial progenitor cells are able to mediate vascular repair and attenuate the progression of this disease even when there is a continued vascular injury. treatment of chronic injuries have been done with endothelial progenitor cells in mice in trials , however the mechanism involved is still a mystery but it is clear that these EPCs contribute a big deal to the restoration of the injured endothelial layer. In one example, intravenous infusion of spleen-derived mononuclear cells increases endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in atherosclerotic mice, signifying that progenitor cells play an important role in repairing the vascular injury.

Finally, for more information about bone marrow transplant and stem cell transplantation, visit www.awaremednetwork.com. Dr. Dalal Akoury has been practicing integrative medicine for years; she will be able to help. You can also visit http://www.integrativeaddiction2015.com and learn more about the upcoming Integrative Addiction Conference 2015. The conference will deliver unique approaches to telling symptoms of addiction and how to assist patients of addiction.

Endothelial Progenitor Cells Role on Injured Tissue

 

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Why are Stem Cells Important?

What are stem cells, and why are they important?

Stem cellStem cells are very special, powerful cells found in both humans and also in other animals. Stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body. What makes stem cells special is that they are regenerative and malleable. They have the ability to replicate themselves and to repair and replace other tissues in the human body. Some tissues, like skin, need constant renewal, which could not take place without skin stem cells. Other stem cells repair damage to the body’s tissues, for example, rebuilding damaged or degenerating muscle tissue. New research also indicates that stem cell malfunction or damage may be responsible for certain cancers and even muscular-degeneration diseases like Muscular Dystrophy.

Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. All stem cells have three general features that make them different from other body cells. These features are: they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. They are unspecialized and they can give rise to specialized cell types. Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. Unlike muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells which do not normally replicate themselves, stem cells may replicate many times, or proliferate.

The stem cells have a unique ability to divide and become more specialized cells forming cells like bone, blood, or muscle. It is this ability that makes them attractive agents in many areas of medicine. They can therefore be used to fight very many diseases in the regenerative medicine. Another advantage of stem cell therapy treatments is that autologous stem cell transport is made possible. This means that a person may be treated by doctors harvesting the stem cells from the patient and having the stem cells reimplanted into the same patient after finding out what was lacking in the patient. This reduces risks of infection as well as rejection which are helpful to the patient.

Importance of stem cells

the stem cells are very important cells in the body and have been since targeted for treatment of degenerative diseases. They have been called the center pieces of regenerative medicine. Medicine that involves growing new cells, tissues and organs to replace or repair those damaged by injury, disease or aging. there ability to proliferate into other cells of the body like the bone and muscle tissues have made them a priority in treatment of various degenative diseases like aging and even osteoporosis among others. here is how stem cells work in treatment of various diseases.

Rejuvenation– the stem cells can be used in rejuvenation process. through rejuvenation the bodies healing ability is boosted. Typically, the body is programmed to naturally repair itself that is why after you get a cut you can stay without going to hospital but still get healed within a very short time. However there other crucial organs that when damaged do not easily get repaired. When the body’s cells cannot get differentiated to give rise to new healthy cells and heal the damaged cell then there is a problem. According to Mayo clinic the cells that were once thought of as terminally differentiated including the heart, lungs and nerves which are more specialized are able to remodel as they possess ability to self-renew. However researchers are still working to come up with strategies through which the ability of these cells to self-heal can be enhanced.

Stem cellReplacement– here the stem cells can be used to replace the damaged cells.in degenerative diseases like osteoporosis the damaged tissues can be replaced with fresh stem cells that will proliferate into more functional bone issues and relieve the system of the damaged tissues. the stem cells can be transplanted in autologous manner where the stem cells will be harvested in the adipose or the bone marrow and be used to replace the affected cells in organ. with autologues stem cell transplant the issue of donor is not a problem neither are there issues of rejection nor the need for immunosuppression .

Regeneration- Through regeneration the stem cells are delivered to diseased tissues or organs, where they will ultimately restore tissue and organ function. This can be done through cell-based therapy or by using cell products, such as growth factors. Bone marrow transplants are an example of regeneration. Regeneration aims to awaken cells that are not functional or have malfunctions. With stem cell therapy there is hope for affordable healthcare solutions that heal the body whole without life threatening side effects.

Stem cells are a cutting edge

Stem cells are capable of self-renewing giving rise to several copies of themselves. They also have the capability of shifting shape and changing type, therefore they can be used to form the cells that are damaged and restore the functions of the damaged tissues. The stem cells can be used to replace the cells that have malfunctioned due to structural damage. The amazing part of the stem cell differentiation is that when a stem cell divides both the daughter cell and the parent stem cells have the potential to differentiate into different cells or to still remain as stem cells. Owing to this ability of stem cells to differentiate into more specialized cells, they can rebuild lost blood vessels, reverse scarring, regenerate damaged nerves, and bring back the healthy you.

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Stem cell therapy has a lot to offer to patients, Visit us at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Centre at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) an expert in integrative and regenerative medicine will be able to help.

What are stem cells, and why are they important?

 

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Unique Properties of Stem Cells

What Are The Unique Properties Of All Stem Cells?

Stem CellsThe stem cells have been hailed for their efficacy in treatment of certain diseases especially those that are degenerative in nature like the Parkinson’s disease, osteoarthritis and even the Huntington’s disease. To accomplish all its medicinal capabilities the stem cells must have certain properties that are not present in other body cells. They therefore differ from other cells in the body. The stem cells are available majorly in the bone marrows and the adipose tissues but can also be harvested from placentas after a safe delivery. The stem cells have three general properties regardless of their source. These properties are; they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods; they are unspecialized; and they can give rise to specialized cell types. It is these distinct characteristics of the stem cells that make them effective in treatment of degenerative diseases.

The other cells found in the body like the nerve cells, the muscle cells and the blood cells are not able to replicate themselves unlike the stem cells that are able to proliferate after long periods of time. Typically, a starting population of stem cells that proliferates for many months in the laboratory can yield millions of cells. What is more is that the daughter cells are capable of long term self-renewal giving rise to more unspecialized cells.

Despite the vast research that has been done on the stem cells and their ability to treat certain diseases there are some information that are still required which we can only hope that researchers will one day find an answer to. These questions are as follows:

  • Scientists are trying to understand two fundamental properties of stem cells that relate to their long-term self-renewal:
  • Why can embryonic stem cells proliferate for a year or more in the laboratory without differentiating, but most adult stem cells cannot; and
  • What are the factors in living organisms that normally regulate stem cell proliferation and self-renewal?

When these answers are addressed there will be a valid explanation to how cell proliferation is regulated during normal embryonic development or during the abnormal cell division that leads to cancer. Such information would also enable scientists to grow embryonic and non-embryonic stem cells more efficiently in the laboratory to help in treatment of diseases.

The stem cells are unspecialized

Stem cells remain unspecialized even after long hours in the laboratory after getting harvested. The scientists have spent years of research trying to find out factors that make the stem cells unspecialized and differentiating into different cell types. It took two decades to learn how to grow human embryonic stem cells in the laboratory following the development of conditions for growing mouse stem cells. In a similar manner the scientists must first understand the signals that enable adult stem cell population to proliferate and remain unspecialized before they will be able to grow large numbers of unspecialized adult stem cells in the laboratory for medicinal use.

The stem cells are not specialized and hence are not able to perform specific functions. Unlike heart muscle cells, the stem cells are not able to pump blood through the body, they can neither carry oxygen molecules through the bloodstream like red blood cells nor can they kill pathogens like the white blood cells but they can give rise to more of all these cells; they can form bone, heart muscle cells, blood cells and even nerve cells. So they are then unspecialized cells that have the unique ability to give rise to specialized and more vital functional specialized cells.

Stem cellsThe process through which undifferentiated stem cells give rise to specialized cells is known as differentiation. It is through this process of differentiation that the stem cells become even more specialized. Scientists are just beginning to understand the signals inside and outside cells that trigger each step of the differentiation process. The internal signals are controlled by a cell’s genes, which are interspersed across long strands of DNA and carry coded instructions for all cellular structures and functions. In contrast, the external signals for cell differentiation include chemicals secreted by other cells, physical contact with neighboring cells, and certain molecules in the microenvironment. The interaction of signals during differentiation causes the cell’s DNA to acquire epigenetic marks that restrict DNA expression in the cell and can be passed on through cell division giving rise to more specialized cells.

There are however some questions that should be addressed and these may include; Are the internal and external signals for cell differentiation similar for all kinds of stem cells? Can specific sets of signals be identified that promote differentiation into specific cell types? Finding answers to these questions may help scientists to find new ways to control stem cell differentiation in the laboratory, thereby growing cells or tissues that can be used for specific purposes such as cell-based therapies or drug screening.

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With these distinct characteristics of the stem cells especially their ability to give rise to different specialized cell types, the stem cells are a cutting edge to treatment of diseases. Degenerative diseases have debilitated many people but it is treatable. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert in integrative medicine and a founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Center located at Myrtle Beach South Caroline. Visit her for more information on most lifestyle diseases.

What Are The Unique Properties Of All Stem Cells?

 

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