Tag Archives: Huntington’s disease

Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disorders

Adipose Derived Stem Cells to Treat Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disorders

There are very many neurodegenerative disorders that we humans have to battle with. Some of these neurodegenerative disorders are inflammatory. Inflammation is a common feature in some neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis. Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, become chronically activated and mediate pathology inducing inflammatory responses. This inflammation may be initiated as an immune response and while it does not cause the disease, it has been shown to aggravate the progression of the inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. Contrary to what many people think, inflammation does not initiate neurodegenerative disease but there is evidence that chronic inflammation involving microglia and astrocytes contribute to disease progression. The inflammatory response has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and MS. Currently, a major question is whether inhibition of the inflammatory response has the ability to reverse or slow the symptoms of disease.

Typically, inflammation is a defense mechanism against diverse insults, designed to remove noxious agents and to inhibit their detrimental effects. It consists of an astounding range of molecular and cellular mechanisms and an intricate network of controls to keep them in check. In neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation may be triggered by the accumulation of proteins with abnormal conformations or by signals emanating from injured neurons. Given the multiple functions of many inflammatory factors, it has been difficult to pinpoint their roles in specific pathological situations. Studies of genetically modified mice and of molecular pathways in activated glia are beginning to shed light on this issue. Through different studies it has been found that altered expression of different inflammatory factors can either aggravate or counteract neurodegenerative processes. Normally, inflammation should be beneficial but for some reasons inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders can form grounds for aggravation of these neurodegenerative disorders and so a viable means of treatment that should suppress inflammation and inhibit progression of these disorders should be utilized to help in treatment of these inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders.

Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Inflammation and Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. According to a new study, there are markers of inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid that protects the brain and spine from injury. This study linked these markers to symptoms like fatigue, depression and anxiety in patients with Parkinson’s disease and it is hoped that this discovery may make the treatment of this disease much easier.

This study was led by Lena Brundin who is an associate professor at the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University. This research was carried out as part of a team from Lund University in Sweden, Skåne University Hospital in Sweden and the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine in Jacksonville, Florida. The team measured a number of inflammatory markers in fluid samples of patients with Parkinson’s and in a control group without the disease.

“The degree of neuroinflammation was significantly associated with more severe depression, fatigue, and cognitive impairment even after controlling for factors such as age, gender and disease duration.” Prof. Brundin told the press.

However this is not the first study to link brain inflammation to Parkinson’s disease, there are previous studies that have linked it to non-motor symptoms like depression, fatigue and cognitive impairment. These past studies have indicated that inflammation in the brain could drive cell death, and drugs that target this process could offer new treatments to slow progression of the disease. For instance, a study published as far back as 2007 suggested that brain cell death in Parkinson’s may be reduced by blocking enzyme activity.

According to Prof. Brundin most of these previous studies looking at inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s patients have involved only small numbers of patients, often without comparing them to healthy controls. Despite this view, it is still evident that brain inflammation still has a role to play in aggravating neurodegenerative disorders.

Inflammation and Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the Central Nervous System that is characterized by demyelination and inflammation. In a nutshell, MS is often described as an inflammatory demyelinating condition. Myelin is a layer of fatty that covers the nerves maintaining their health and flexibility. It is demyelination that causes spasms that are common with MS patients.

Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Adipose derived stem cell therapy for these inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders

Owing to the ability of the stem cells to differentiate many times and form different body cells, they have been used in the past to regenerate or better yet to replace damaged cells in the body and this has made them a target for treatment of vey many conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders.

The stem cell therapy is now being used to grow dopamine producing nerve cells in laboratories to aid the treatment of this disease. The stem cells are majorly used in the labs when the genetic cause of the disease is known. The disease destroys cells but through stem cells therapy, the damaged cells can be replaced by healthy new cells of the same type. There are also researchers who have since done extensive work in applicability of stem cell therapy in treating PD. through research it has been shown that by releasing various kinds of noxious factors such as cytokines or proinflammatory molecules microglia may damage CNS cells. The stem cell therapy can be used to restore the parts of the nervous system that are destroyed as a result of release of cytokines in inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders.

Finally, Neurodegenerative disorders have debilitating effects on patients and should be fought by all means. This is why we at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center are committed to availing help to patients by availing integrative and safe treatment options to all our patients. In case you are troubled by any of these disorders, just call on Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) today and begin your journey to victory against neurodegenerative disorders

Adipose Derived Stem Cells to Treat In Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Stem Cell Therapy for Huntington’s disease

The Use of Stem Cell Therapy for Huntington’s disease

Huntington's diseaseHuntington’s disease was first described in medical literature in 1872 by Dr. George Huntington. He was a physician from Long Island, New York. This disease mainly affects nerve cells in the brain called medium spiny neurons (MSNs). The MSNs are crucial in the brain as they receive and coordinate information from other neurons in the brain to control movement of the body, face and eyes. Huntington’s disease is hereditary neurodegenerative disease that affects about 1 out of every 10,000 people in the USA, Europe and Australia. This disease causes involuntary movements of the face and body and dementia. The symptoms of this disease may begin mildly but they worsen with time eventually it will make the affected individual totally dependent on other people for help. Till now there are no known effective treatments for this disease.

This disease leads to damage and destruction of the crucial MSNs. however it doesn’t affect the MSNs only, other types of neurons in the brain that apparently are also affected by this disease are the cortical neurons. This disease is common in adults and patients will mostly notice the first symptom of the disease when they are aged 35-50 years old. In the beginning the disease might show symptoms as weak spasmodic movements of the muscles in the face and limbs. However as the disease worsens these spasmodic movements become more evident and frequent and other symptoms appear. Patients are affected in different ways, but symptoms may include difficulty speaking and swallowing, dementia or trouble concentrating.

As mentioned earlier Huntington’s disease is hereditary and children with an affected parent have a 50% chance of inheriting the genetic fault that causes the disease. This fault occurs in the gene that holds the code for a protein called Huntingtin. The defective gene causes the body to make a faulty, toxic version of the Huntingtin protein and this eventually results in the loss of MSNs and other neurons which worsens the health of the patient.

 

Presently, there are no accepted standard treatment of Huntington’s disease, a disease characterized by wasting away of certain nerve cells in the brain and improper muscle coordination. Despite this fact, there are therapies that have been thought of as potent enough to help in the treatment of this disease. One of the therapies mentioned is the stem cell therapy.

Currently, there is a study that has reported that stem cell therapy can be used in treating Huntington’s disease. The study published on March 15 in the journal Cell Stem Cell reports that there is a special type of brain cell created from stem cells that could help restore the muscle coordination deficits that are responsible for uncontrollable spasms, a common symptom of the disease. The researchers demonstrated that movement in mice with a Huntington’s-like condition could be restored.

Research study linking stem cells to Treatment of Huntington’s disease

The study was led by Su-Chun Zhang who is a neuroscientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Mr. Zhang is also an expert in creating various types of brain cells from human embryonic or induce pluripotent stem cells. In this research he and his team focused on GABA neurons. They worked on the GABA because of the theory that the degradation of GABA cells results in the breakdown of a vital neural circuit and loss of motor function in individuals suffering from Huntington’s disease.

According to Zhang, GABA neurons generate a vital neurotransmitter, a chemical that helps support the communication network in the brain that coordinates movement. In this study Zhang and his colleagues looked for various ways of generating large quantities of GABA neurons from human embryonic stem cells. Owing to the ability of stem cells to change shape and multiply the team hoped that the stem cells will be able to be safely integrated into the brain of a mouse model of Huntington’s disease. As they had expected the stem cells were safely integrated into the brain. The stem cells were also able to restore the damaged communication network and restore motor function.

The results of this study presents hope not only to patients but to the entire medical fraternity, he explained why they had targeted the GABA circuitry; “This circuitry is essential for motor coordination and it is what is broken in Huntington patients. The GABA neurons exert their influence at a distance through this circuit. Their cell targets are far away. Many in the field feel that successful cell transplants would be impossible because it would require rebuilding the circuitry. But what we’ve shown is that the GABA neurons can remake the circuitry and produce the right neurotransmitter.”

Huntington's diseaseThe finding of this research presents hope as they show that in the future, the stem cell therapy can be used in the treatment of the Huntington’s disease. This experiment also shows that the human brain can also be a good target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

The leader of the team that conducted this research, Mr. Zhang however notes that though this research shows some success it might take some time before the stem cell therapy can be used in treating humans suffering from Huntington’s disease.

There are diseases like Huntington’s disease which still do not have known orthodox treatments; this is why here at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center we are committed to availing the best integrative approaches to treatment of diseases. We advocate for dietary as well as natural healing to diseases wherever possible. Visit as at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina where Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) will be of help.

The Use of Stem Cell Therapy for Huntington’s disease

 

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Understanding withdrawal

 

Neurobiology of withdrawal

WithdrawalThe biggest challenge to all addicts that makes it hard for them to quite using drugs is withdrawal. Most addicts are not using the drugs because the like using the drugs but rather because they are enslaved to the drugs in such a way that whenever they try to boycott the drug the withdrawal symptoms will be too overwhelming to deal with and so they end up succumbing to the intense craving of their drug of abuse, some choose to go back to their old life where drugs matter simply because they want an instant relief from the withdrawal symptoms. The instant relief will be achieved but this will escalate the problem even further as the patient will be following the same tradition.

To walk with everybody, we need to understand this whole topic, the term withdrawal is not new as it has been defined in previous articles. However we need to define neurobiology so that we all are on one ground.

What is Neurobiology?

Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and how these cells are organized of these cells into functional circuits that process information and influence behavior. Neurobiology is a sub unit of both biology and neuroscience. Neuroscience is much broader as a scientific study of the nervous system than neurobiology.

It is crucial to understand the functions of the neurons. Firstly, the neurons are cells that are specialized to receive, propagate, and transmit electrochemical impulses to initiate certain responses that are critical for proper functioning of the body. The brain of a human being has more than a hundred billion neurons. These neurons however are diverse in morphology and function.

The nervous system is very important owing to its many function, it is therefore good to note that it should be healthy at all times since any slight effect on the neurotransmitters goes a long way in affected not only the health of a person but also his behavior. Illnesses that affect the nervous system are known as neurobiological disorders. These neurobiological disorders are often caused by genetic, metabolic and other biological factors. Most of the illnesses termed as psychiatric disorders are neurobiological. These may include; bipolar disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, autism, Tourette syndrome and even schizophrenia. To avoid most of the neurobiological disorders, it is good to maintain a good nutrition and avoid substances that may deplete the neurons and interfere with the proper functioning of the nervous system. In this article we will explore what happens to the nervous system that causes withdrawal.

What causes withdrawal symptoms?

A person using any type of recreational drug risks suffering from its severe withdrawal symptoms and each drug of abuse has its own unique withdrawal symptoms that those who depend on the drug have to suffer. However it is good to note that you cannot suffer any withdrawal symptom however long you use a drug until you become dependent on the drug. You first have to depend on the drug to suffer its withdrawal symptoms. Without dependence there is no withdrawal.

Neurotransmitters are naturally synthesized in the cell body and migrate down the axon to the presynaptic terminals. Here they are stored in little packets called vesicles which fuse with the synaptic membrane. When a depolarizing current is received, these vesicles release their contents into the synaptic cleft. These happen naturally without dependence on any drug.

The neurotransmitters relay signals between nerve cells, called neurons. The brain uses neurotransmitters to tell your heart to beat, your lungs to breathe, and your stomach to digest. They can also affect mood, sleep, concentration, weight, and can cause adverse symptoms when they are out of balance. However neurotransmitter levels can be depleted many ways. One of the biggest contribution to the depletion of the neurotransmitters is the use of drugs both prescription and recreational.

When you use drugs, especially the recreational drugs for a long time there are neurotransmitters that are affected. The neurotransmitters in the brain have specific purposes that together ensure the right balance in the brain for proper functioning of the neurotransmitters. There are both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain. There must be balance between these neurotransmitters if the brain is to work normally. However when a person has become dependent on drugs, the balance between these neurotransmitters is interfered with. The inhibitory hormones include:

 

Serotonin- this neurotransmitter is anti-stimulant. It suppresses all the effects of drugs recreation that works to stimulate the brain. It should be available in good levels to ensure balance in moods too. When you become dependent on recreation drugs serotonin becomes depleted and so the ‘highs’ of the brain will be unregulated making the brain dependent on the drugs. Any attempt to stop using the drug will cause withdrawal. Plus it is serotonin that controls cravings for carbohydrates and even responsible for sleep cycles when it’s depleted the withdrawal symptoms become inevitable.

WithdrawalGABA –this also regulates the excitatory neurotransmitter firing to the brain, however when drugs of recreation are used for a long time this neurotransmitter becomes depleted further creating an imbalance in the brain.

Just like inhibitory neurotransmitter excitatory Neurotransmitters are also very important but are also affected by drugs of abuse. These include;

Norepinephrine- is an excitatory neurotransmitter that is responsible for stimulatory processes in the body. Norepinephrine helps to make epinephrine as well. Drugs suppress your brain’s production of neurotransmitters like noradrenaline. When you stop using drugs or alcohol it’s like taking the weight off the brain, and your brain rebounds by producing a surge of adrenaline that causes withdrawal symptoms. Plus when the levels of inhibitory neurotransmitters are low it means the levels of excitatory neurotransmitters are increased and this causes anxiety and low moods which are common symptoms of withdrawal. Other excitatory hormones that are subject to drug abuse include dopamine and epinephrine. The imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters is responsible for withdrawal in drug users. We at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center are committed to availing help to addicts by availing some of the most integrative approaches to healing an addict. We advocate for natural healing to all kinds of addiction. Call on Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina for help.

Neurobiology of withdrawal

 

 

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