Tag Archives: Lysergic acid diethylamide

Prescription drug addictions

Prescription drug addictions

Prescription drug addictions is becoming a common disturbing phenomenon

Prescription drug addictions: Leaving no stone unturned

For a very long time, people did not take seriously that prescription drugs could be abused since they are endorsed medically by doctors. But things are changing and prescription drug addictions have become one of the serious problems people are dealing with sometimes even more than most of the street drugs. We totally agree that painkillers, tranquilizers, antidepressants, sleeping pills, and stimulants may appear “safe” due to the fact that they are being prescribed by doctors, however, they can be just as addictive and potent as the heroin or cocaine sold on the street. The painkiller OxyContin, for example, is as powerful as heroin and affects the body in the same way. Continued use of painkillers, depressants (“downers”), Stimulants (“uppers”) or antidepressants can lead to addiction—and painful withdrawal symptoms for those who try to quit. The following is a brief explanation about some of the inhalants listed above:

Painkillers: OxyContin, Fentanyl, morphine, Percodan, Demerol are a few of a long list of painkillers. Effects can include slowed breathing, nausea, and unconsciousness. Abuse can lead to addiction.

Depressants: These drugs, which slow down your brain and nervous system functions, include Xanax, Zyprexa, Amytal, Seconal, Valium and many others. Effects can include heart problems, weight gain, fatigue and slurred speech. Continued use can lead to addiction.

Stimulants: These drugs speed up your heart rate and breathing, similar to “speed” or cocaine. They include Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, and drugs known as “bennies.” Effects include increased blood pressure and heartbeat, hostility and paranoia.

Antidepressants: Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, and Celexa are some of the commonly used antidepressants. Effects can include irregular heartbeat, paranoid reactions, violent or suicidal thoughts and hallucinations. Long-term use can lead to addiction.

It will interest you to note that currently as things stand, painkillers, depressants, and antidepressants are responsible for more overdose deaths in the United States than cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and amphetamines combined.

Prescription drug addictions: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

LSD is sold in tablets, capsules or in liquid form. It is commonly added to absorbent paper and divided into small decorated squares. Each square is a dose. LSD is still one of the most potent mood-changing chemicals and is derived from the extremely poisonous ergot fungus, a mold which grows on rye and other grains. Its effects are unpredictable. A tiny amount can produce 12 hours or more of effects.

Prescription drug addictions: Effects of LSD

Dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth and tremors. People can experience severe, terrifying thoughts and feelings, fear of losing control, fear of insanity and death and feelings of despair while using LSD.  Flashbacks, or recurrences, of an LSD “trip”, can be experienced long after the drug is taken and its effect has apparently worn off. The “trip” itself usually begins to clear up after about 12 hours, but some users manifest long-lasting psychoses. All these put together can only be a good motivation for you to change your way of thinking towards prescription drugs and LSD with a view of seeking for treatment immediately from the experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center today.

Prescription drug addictions: Leaving no stone unturned








Descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences

Descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences: Each drug has a unique way of attack to health

Descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences

When drugs looks like wheat flour or sugar like this, then the Descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences becomes necessary.

Somebody once made a joke that the varieties of drugs in the market are so easy to access and he wished that those drugs were job opportunities he would have made a lot of money out of the many accessible job opportunities. He made this joke because in his search for employment, he was more than three times mistaken to be looking for drugs to buy. The drug barons were ready to sell for him only to be disappointed at their ghost client. Listening to this man you wonder how drugs are easily accessible for those who use them and because of that, the social fabric of the society is decaying at an alarming rate. Owing to that introduction, we want to explore further on the descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequence. Some of the most commonly abused substances may include nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, prescription medications, inhalants; cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA (Ecstasy or “Molly”), LSD, heroin, steroids and drug combinations are some of the specific substances that we want to interrogate how they impact on individuals’ health.
The descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences are not explanations that you can do in your layman understanding. It is complex and technical hence the need of having professional brains to bring out the clear information. That is why we spoke to doctor Dalal Akoury MD and founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center to give the insight about the specific abused substances medical consequences. It will interest you to note that doctor Akoury passionately made a decision to create this medical center primarily to transform each individual’s life through increasing awareness about health and wellness and by empowering individuals to find their own inner healing power. Dr. Akoury’s practice focuses on personalized medicine through healthy lifestyle choices that deal with primary prevention and underlying causes instead of patching up symptoms. You can now reach out for her assistance for any drug addiction related concerns today.

Descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences: What are some effects of specific abused substances?

Nicotine – this is an addictive stimulant found in cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. Tobacco smoke increases a user’s risk of cancer, emphysema, bronchial disorders, and cardiovascular disease. The mortality rate associated with tobacco addiction is staggering. The available statistics indicate that tobacco use alone killed approximately 100 million people during the 20th century, this is worrying and if the current smoking trends continue, the cumulative death toll for this century has been projected to reach 1 billion faced out of the surface of the earth.

Alcohol – the consumption of alcohol can damage the brain and most body organs. Areas of the brain that are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related damage are the cerebral cortex which is largely responsible for our higher brain functions, including problem solving and decision making, the hippocampus which targets memory and learning and the cerebellum entrusted with the coordination of movement.

Marijuana – this is one of the most commonly abused illegal substances. This drug impairs short-term memory and learning, the ability to focus attention, and coordination. It also increases heart rate, can harm the lungs, and can increase the risk of psychosis in those with an underlying vulnerability.

Prescription medications – there are very many prescription medications including opioid pain relievers such as OxyContin® and Vicodin®, anti-anxiety sedatives such as Valium® and Xanax®, and ADHD stimulants such as Adderall® and Ritalin®, are commonly misused to self-treat for medical problems or abused for purposes of getting high or (especially with stimulants) improving performance. However, misuse or abuse of these drugs that is to say, taking them other than exactly as instructed by a doctor and for the purposes prescribed can lead to addiction and in some cases death. Opioid pain relievers, for instance, are frequently abused by being crushed and injected or snorted, greatly raising the risk of addiction and overdose. Unfortunately, there is a common misperception that because medications are prescribed by physicians, they are safe even when used illegally or by another person than they were prescribed for.

Inhalants – ideally inhalant are volatile substances found in many household products, such as oven cleaners, gasoline, spray paints, and other aerosols that induce mind-altering effects; they are frequently the first drugs tried by children or young teens. Inhalants are extremely toxic and can damage the heart, kidneys, lungs, and brain. Even a healthy person can suffer heart failure and death within minutes of a single session of prolonged sniffing of an inhalant.

Cocaine – this is a short-acting stimulant, which can lead users to take the drug many times in a single session often known as a binge. Cocaine use can lead to severe medical consequences related to the heart and the respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems.

Amphetamines – this drug including methamphetamine, are powerful stimulants that can produce feelings of euphoria and alertness. Methamphetamine’s effects are particularly long-lasting and harmful to the brain. Amphetamines can cause high body temperature and can lead to serious heart problems and seizures.

MDMA (Ecstasy or “Molly”) – this drug produces both stimulant and mind-altering effects. It can increase body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and heart-wall stress. MDMA may also be toxic to nerve cells.

LSD – this is one of the most potent hallucinogenic, or perception-altering, drugs. Its effects are unpredictable, and abusers may see vivid colors and images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that seem real but do not exist. Users also may have traumatic experiences and emotions that can last for many hours

Heroin – there is no doubt that heroin is a powerful opioid drug that produces euphoria and feelings of relaxation. It slows respiration, and its use is linked to an increased risk of serious infectious diseases, especially when taken intravenously. People who become addicted to opioid pain relievers sometimes switch to heroin instead, because it produces similar effects and may be cheaper or easier to obtain.

Steroids – these drugs can also be prescribed for certain medical conditions, they are normally abused to increase muscle mass and to improve athletic performance or physical appearance. Serious consequences of abuse can include severe acne, heart disease, liver problems, stroke, infectious diseases, depression, and suicide.

Descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences: Drug combinations

A particularly dangerous and common practice is the combining of two or more drugs. The practice ranges from the co-administration of legal drugs, like alcohol and nicotine, to the dangerous mixing of prescription drugs, to the deadly combination of heroin or cocaine with fentanyl (an opioid pain medication). Whatever the context, it is critical to realize that because of drug–drug interactions, such practices often pose significantly higher risks than the already harmful individual drugs. Finally now that you are aware of the specific abused substances and how they are affecting your health, if this article is addressing any of your conditions, then you may want to schedule for an appointment with doctor Akoury for a one on one professional discussion.

Descriptions of specific abused substances medical consequences: Each drug has a unique way of attack to health



Molecular Mechanisms of Methamphetamine Induced-Neurotoxicity

Methamphetamine is a stimulant that is also highly soluble in water and affects the CNS most. Categorically it fits in the group of synthetic drugs chemically related to amphetamine but it has more adverse effects on the Central nervous system than the parent compound. Abuse of these illegal psychostimulants has become an international public health problem, with an estimated 14 to 52 million amphetamine-type stimulant users worldwide, exceeding the total number of cocaine abusers and second only to the number of cannabis abusers. This number has continued to rise in spite of the fact that much has been done to publicize the adverse effects these amphetamine related stimulants are linked to. Meth or speed as known in stimulant use circles exists in different forms like powder, tablets and capsules. It can also be found in a purer crystalline form.

It’s dangerous why is it used?

Just like most stimulants or drugs that are known to induce euphoric feelings, methamphetamine is also taken for similar reasons for example; to induce euphoric feelings, increased sense of well-being, increase energy and to calm anxiety. Being a powerful drug its effects are felt immediately after the use but these effects can last for long hours. They may be accompanied by acute adverse effects such as increased blood pressure and heart rate, which may cause irreversible damage to blood vessels in the brain, resulting in cerebrovascular accidents, stroke, and death. Methamphetamine also produces hyperthermia, pupil dilation, flushing, tremors, trismus and bruxism, muscle tension, loss of appetite or anorexia, and loss of pleasure in food intake which further leads to deterioration of the user’s health.


Effects of Methamphetamine

Being an addictive drug, after a prolonged use the users may develop tolerance. It’s most common symptoms after a prolonged use include; temporomandibular joint syndrome, dental erosion, and myofacial pain. Long-term use also produces lack of appetite, weight loss, accelerated aging, nose-bleeding problems, nonhealing wounds, tooth decay and fracture known as “Meth mouth”. Psychiatric symptoms include anxiety, depression, increased aggression, social isolation, psychosis, mood disturbances, and psychomotor dysfunction. Long periods of high consumption can cause paranoid psychosis. Other symptoms of chronic methamphetamine use may also include; deficits in attention, working memory, and decision making. Most addicts are stuck in the use of meth as a result of the withdrawal symptoms which include the following; irritability, fatigue, impaired social functioning, and intense craving for the drug. Researchers have given evidence that the negative neuropsychiatric consequences of methamphetamine abuse are due, at least in part, to drug-induced neuropathological changes in the brain. Although the exact molecular mechanisms of neuronal body loss are not known, there is evidence to suggest the coexistence of different types of cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis ; indicated by the morphology of neurons stained with hematoxylin-eosin.  Growing evidence exhibits that methamphetamine and MDMA induce an increase in lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation as well as increased levels of oxidative stress markers such as hydroxyl radical producing neurotoxicity. Methamphetamine increases expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)/ neuronal nitric oxide synthase (iNOS ) indicating increased synthesis of neuronal nitric oxide, which combines with superoxide radicals to form peroxynitrite which is a strong oxidant and a major neurotoxin . Induction of nNOS/iNOS by methamphetamine or MDMA  constitutes part of the mechanism of methamphetamine damage, as selective inhibition or genetic inactivation of nNOS and overexpression of cupper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, prevent methamphetamine neurotoxicity . Even though methamphetamine increases iNOS expression in the striatum , there is no basis for supposing the involvement of glial nitric oxide in methamphetamine-induced toxicity, but it is interesting to note that mice deficient in iNOS have increased resistance to methamphetamine-induced dopamine neuron damage.


The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine on the dopaminergic system are accompanied by activation of astroglia and microglia in the same areas  being strongest in the striatum, the area with biggest toxicity. Glial cells are not activated in the nucleus accumbens, which is not much damaged . In mice, glial activation in striatum and in substantia nigra occurs shortly after methamphetamine administration, as indicated by a significant increase in Mac-1 ;a marker of reactive microglia 24 hours after methamphetamine exposure and prominent increases in GFAP ; a marker of reactive gliosis in response to injury occur within a week  after treatment . The extent of these glial reactions correlates with the observed severity of neurotoxicity.

The dopaminergic system is also involved in this toxicity, as demonstrated in various mutant mice in which inactivation of dopamine transport, dopamine D1 receptors or D2 receptors affords a significant protection against methamphetamine toxicity. Administration of THC prevents dopaminergic toxicity after MDMA, a similar amphetamine derivative to methamphetamine, by CB1 receptor stimulation which is present in striatal medium spiny neurons. All these receptors are involved in different aspects of learning processes that became affected by the chronic use of methamphetamine or MDMA.

Finally, Drug abuse, addiction and independence are problems that people grapple with every day. These problems need to be treated effectively through integrative medicine. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert at this.  Call her on (843) 213-1480 for help.

Molecular Mechanisms of Methamphetamine Induced-Neurotoxicity


Oxytocin May Remedy Drug Abuse Effects

Oxytocin May Reverse Corrosive Effects of Long-Term Drugs Abuse

oxytocinA person’s social life has a great influence in his possibility of using drugs of pleasure. Most of drugs of pleasure are used in social circles and therefore it is appropriate to say that social factors play an important role in the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. There is now accumulating evidence of an interaction between the neural substrates of affiliate behavior and those of drug reward, with a role for brain oxytocin systems in modulating acute and long-term drug effects.

What is oxytocin?

Oxytocin is a hormone that is made in the brain, in the hypothalamus, and it is transported to, and secreted by, the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain. Chemically it is known as a nonapeptide, (because it is a peptide containing nine amino acids), and biologically, as a neuropeptide. It acts both as a hormone and as a brain neurotransmitter. Due to its roles in behavior, this hormone has been given different names such as the love hormone, cuddle hormone, bliss hormone, moral molecule and even hug hormone. Researchers say that it is released when people snuggle up or bond socially.

However this hormone seems to have many functions that can be very helpful to clinical treatment of those enslaved by drug addiction. Researchers have been able to establish a link between addiction and oxytocin and the findings are promising as new approaches can be developed on the basis of the influence of oxytocin on drug addiction to help quell drug addiction and free addicts enslaved to drug use.

Past researchers have indicated that exogenous oxytocin administration can prevent development of tolerance to ethanol and opiates, the induction of stereotyped, hyperactive behavior by stimulants, and the withdrawal symptoms associated with sudden abstinence from drugs and alcohol. In addition to this finding, stimulation of endogenous oxytocin systems is a key neurochemical substrate underlying the prosocial and empathogenic effects of party drugs such as MDMA often referred to as Ecstasy and GHB mostly known as Fantasy. According to these early research reports, brain oxytocin systems exhibit profound neuroplasticity and undergo major neuroadaptations as a result of drug exposure. Many drugs, including cocaine, opiates, alcohol, cannabis, MDMA and GHB cause long-term changes in markers of oxytocin function and this may be linked to enduring deficits in social behavior that are commonly observed in laboratory animals after going through repeated exposure to these drugs. Very recent preclinical studies have illustrated a remarkable ability of exogenously delivered oxytocin to inhibit stimulant and alcohol self-administration, to alter associated drug-induced changes in dopamine, glutamate and Fos expression in cortical and basal ganglia sites, and to prevent stress and priming-induced relapse to drug seeking. Oxytocin therefore has fascinating potential to reverse the corrosive effects of long-term drugs abuse on social behavior and to perhaps inoculate against future vulnerability to addictive disorders. However clinical studies that are examining intranasal oxytocin effects in humans with drug use disorders are still awaited but hopes are high that the results may open ways into a new dimension in fighting drug addiction by using this hormone.

Targeted as a novel treatment of Drug addiction

Over the years researchers have had speculations that oxytocin may have an effect on drug addiction and related behaviors. Clinical doctors and other researchers have got the knowledge that people who are addicted to certain drugs exhibit antisocial traits and exhibit poor decision making in the social domain. There has also been a link between high levels of oxytocin and blossoming relationships as well as stable social bonds. Due to its speculated effects on drug addiction related behavior, oxytocin has been targeted as a novel treatment for alcohol and drug abuse. This has been catapulted by the realization that the acute prosocial effects of some popular recreational drugs most likely involve stimulation of oxytocin systems and that the neural substrates of social bonding and drug reward may be intertwined.

Some drugs of pleasure like MDMA when taken affect the person in a way that he becomes more loving and close to the people around him. He also becomes more naïve as to trust those with him and even to agree with most of their arguments. In preclinical tests these prosocial behaviors have been seen in animal models, for instance in strange pairs of rats meeting for the first time, MDMA markedly reduce aggression and increase a behavior known as adjacent lying; the rats cuddle inhibiting a feeling of love and trust as always the case with human beings under the influence of this drug. MDMA and its metabolites stimulate hypothalamic oxytocin release and after this hormone has been released in high levels then the prosocial feelings are exhibited.

OxytocinMany researchers have now proposed that the reason why many addicts go through drug addiction recovery programs successfully in rehabs may be because of this hormone. The addicts who are majorly summoned to anonymous meetings in the rehabs experience surge in this hormone as they relate to their fellow addicts, this is said to have therapeutic effects as they help resettle dysfunctional oxytocin pathways. In spite of it’s clearly involvement in the prosocial effects of some drugs, it is not clear whether oxytocin itself is rewarding. It is however appropriate to mention that there is still a lot that should be done on this field to avail information on how these past findings can help ease drug addiction treatment.

Finally, Drug abuse, addiction and independence are problems that people grapple with every day. These problems need to be treated effectively through integrative medicine. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert at this. Call her on (843) 213-1480 for help.

Oxytocin May Reverse Corrosive Effects of Long-Term Drugs Abuse



25-Nbome Series Are Deadly Hallucinogens

25-Nbome Series Are Deadly Hallucinogens

N-Bombs are members of the NBOMe ‘family’ of drugs. These drugs are very powerful hallucinogens, similar to LSD. However the way a person feels may be different from what another feels after using LSD. LSD is said to be much safer than 25-NBOMe Series. These drugs when taken changes the way a person see objects and reality. A person will see things that are not even in existent. It is however very funny that these drugs are majorly abused by people simply because the make you hallucinate. When a person uses this drug he is taken on a trip. This trip involves moments when a person feels like he is supernatural, he sees things that are not normally seen, he feels like he has broken all the boundaries of his mind and begins to understand how certain things work the way they do. However the trip can be good or bad, bad trips may take too long and cause a person to behave abnormally which may force him to be taken to hospital. When in good trips a person sees things that make him feel on top of his world, he becomes very contemplative. The colors become strong and everything seems bright. A feeling of happiness and euphoria is common and a person may laugh a lot.


The alterations in the senses of a user differ greatly. At times the distortions may pleasant, but sometimes very frightening (these are called ‘bad trips’). It may also become hard for a person to tell whether something is in motion or not. Something may seem to be in high speed while in real sense they are not even moving. Color, sound and objects can get distorted and you can experience double vision. N-Bomb‘s are also related to the 2C ‘family’ of compounds.

In most countries the use of the N-Bombs is illegal and anybody who is found in possession of these drugs can be jailed for quite a long time. The drugs are classified as Class A drugs. This therefore means that their use is banned. The decision to ban the use of these drugs came up when it was known that unlike the LSD that was thought of as a friendly hallucinogen the N-Bombs had severe effects on the users and even caused death. This means that in many countries today, if the police arrest you in possession of N-Bombs, they’ll always take some action. This could include a formal caution, arrest and prosecution.

Sold As Blotters and Tabs

N-Bombs were often sold as tiny squares of paper. These tiny squares are commonly called “tabs” or “blotters”. Blotters can come in various sizes, shapes, colors and designs. They were also sold in spray, powder and liquid form. It is possible that they will continue to be available in these forms now that they are illegal. The sellers of these drugs are often determined to find ways that they can use to peddle these drugs without being caught by the authorities. Do not be surprised when you hear that they are now sold branded as ‘phone screen cleaner’ or any other funny name. They are looking for better ways to beat the authorities and continue to reap large in this business.

25i_nbomeIt is reported that N-Bombs don’t work if swallowed, so they are usually placed under the tongue or held in the cheeks, where they are absorbed by the lining of the mouth. They can also be sniffed if in their powder form or absorbed via the nose or mouth if a spray form is used. The longer it is kept in the mouth the better for those using it.  Just like other hallucinogens there are a myriad ways through which it can be taken but there are cases that have been reported that snorting the drug is not so safe given that so many people who have been found killed by this drug had snorted it.

N-Bombs are very strong, with only a small amount needed to have an effect. The average dose of the N-Bomb 25I-NBOMe is between 0.00005 and 0.0001gram. Because of this it can be easy to overdose if you are using the powder or liquid forms of N-Bombs. The strength it has also makes it much cheaper as you will only need a smaller size of blotters compared to the size you would need to buy when using LSD.

When a person takes this drug the first feeling comes in at 15 minutes, with a sensation things have definitely changed. This vague feeling will lead to a heightening awareness and pupil dilation. Patterns are most visible. The stitching of your clothes, the veins on a leaf, the design of a ceiling tile. After 45 minute, it will have really set in. Edges will start gaining a fringe. At first it will be as if heat is distorting your vision, then the fringes gain color. There will be peaks and falls in between the first ten hours during a time that what you will see will be very difficult to tell to another person. The climax of these hallucinations will be marked by fractal patterns and pupil dilation. The use of these drugs has caused many deaths mostly because they are so strong that even a slight overdose leads to death. Needless to mention the doses are not easy to control.

Finally, Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an experienced doctor who has been in the frontline fighting drug addiction. He runs a website that equips readers of better ways to overcome not only drug addiction but also serious health problems that have caused nightmares to the world population. Get in touch with her today and learn more.

25-Nbome Series Are Deadly Hallucinogens