Tag Archives: Middle East

Sex Addiction Stress, and Stress

Stress, Sex And Addiction: Roles Of Corticotrophin Releasing Factor, Oxytocin And Arginine- Vasopressin In Sex Addiction Stress.

Sex Addiction

Sex Addiction Stress

Stress sensitivity and sex are predictive factors for the development of neuropsychiatric conditions. it has been thought stresses are the sole cause for addiction but this isn’t true since triggers can also cause relapse to drug use. Sex Addiction Stress and stress involve similar pathways.

The development and clinical course of addiction-related disorders do appear to involve neuroadaptations within neurocircuitries that modulate stress responses and are influenced by several neuropeptides. These include corticotropin-releasing factor, the prototypic member of this class, as well as oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin that play important roles in affiliative behaviors. Interestingly, these peptides function to balance emotional behavior, with sexual dimorphism in the oxytocin/arginine-vasopressin systems, a fact that might play an important role in the differential responses of women and men to stressful stimuli and the specific sex-based prevalence of certain addictive disorders.

Stress and Sex Addiction Stress

Stress generally is defined as any stimulus that challenges physiological homeostasis—that is, which alters the balance or equilibrium of the normal physiological state of the organism.

Individuals exposed to chronic stress exhibit a higher propensity to become addicts. Stress-induced relapse is also higher in addicts. In general, there is a higher prevalence of addiction in patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders and depression. Additionally, childhood trauma is associated with increased vulnerability to addiction. Exposure to high peer deviance in childhood and adolescence is among the strongest known risk factors for drug use and drug abuse. Interestingly, a very recent study has found that individuals with increased risks of drug addiction because of parental divorce or genetic liability are more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of peer deviance.

Stress and addiction are interconnected in several ways. For example, stressful life events may predispose individuals to engage in addictive behavior or relapse.

Sex Addiction Stress

Epidemiological studies have observed significant sex- specific differences among patients suffering from addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The onset, severity, clinical course, and treatment response of anxiety disorders also differ significantly in women compared to men. Importantly, the sex bias in neuropsychiatric disorders, including post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), remains even after adjusting for the type of trauma, pre-existing psychiatric disorders, and sex differences in reporting. Several studies have found increased prevalence of depression in women. Similar sex differences exist for addictive disorders. For example, more adult males abuse addictive drugs than females across most drug classes, including alcohol, psychostimulants, and narcotics. However, women develop addiction more quickly. There are also critical differences in the way that illicit substances affect the two sexes.

Men and women also show different propensities to relapse, and are differentially affected by triggers for relapse to drug taking, putting women at greater risk for repeated relapses despite the higher prevalence of drug abuse in men. Interestingly, once the addiction cycle resumes, women show longer periods of drug use before their next quit attempt.

The sex differences may also be a result of hormonal and neural differences between men and women in relationship to their response to the addictive behavior.

Corticotropin-releasing factor and  Sex addiction Stress.

CRF is a 41-amino acid-containing neuropeptide. CRF orchestrates the stress response by acting at the level of the pituitary to initiate the HPA axis response to stress, as well as centrally to modulate limbic and brain monoamine systems that are important in autonomic and behavioral components of the stress response. CRF causes its effects by stimulation of corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor (CRF1R) and CRF2R, and displays an 18-fold greater affinity for CRF1R than CRF2R.

Physiological responses to stress involve the release of CRF from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, followed by stimulation of ACTH release from the anterior pituitary. ACTH, in turn, stimulates the secretion of cortisol/corticosterone from the adrenal glands. In addition, CRF has an extensive extrahypothalamic influence across the corticostriatal-limbic regions, and plays a critical role in modulating subjective and behavioral stress responses. Central catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline and dopamine, are involved in modulating brain motivational pathways that are important in regulating distress, exerting cognitive and behavioral control, and tempering behavioral and cognitive responses critical for adaptation and homeostasis. The hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic CRF pathways and central catecholamines target brain motivational path- ways to critically affect adaptive and homeostatic processes. CRF dysregulation has been linked to the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. During stress, release of limbic CRF can modulate monoamine systems that have been implicated in mood and cognition. Although activation of both the HPA axis and central monoaminergic systems by CRF during acute stress is adaptive, the inappropriate or persistent activation of these systems can have adverse consequences leading to psychopathology.

Oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin in Sex addiction Stress

Sex addiction and stress

Sex addiction Stress and stress

Cells originating in the PVN have specific pathways that efficiently deliver OXY to other structures in the brain including the amygdala, BNST, septum, hippocampus, and NAc. OXY released by peripheral organs or by the posterior pituitary does not readily cross the blood–brain barrier, with only 1–2% crossing. In disparity, the local expression of OXY receptors is highly variable and explains differences in social attachment within and between species. OXY exerts anxiolytic and anti- depressive effects in various models.

OXY, in collaboration with hormone dopamine, is vital for pairing and bonding in prairie voles. When OXY is infused into the VTA, it increases dopaminergic activity in the NAc, and stimulation of oxytocinergic projections within the VTA increases extracellular DA within the NAc while concurrently inducing penile erection. OXY-induced dopaminergic release within the meso- limbic DA system may impact the attribution of incentive salience to a variety of social stimuli and ultimately influence an organism’s drive towards such objects thus causing addiction.

Sex Addiction Stress is a menace that should be fought by all means that is why we at Integrative Addiction Institute are committed to availing help to addicts and offering training to Health care providers in Integrative Addiction. Call on Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) today for assistance.

Stress And Sex Addiction Stress: Roles Of Corticotrophin Releasing Factor, Oxytocin And Arginine- Vasopressin In Sex Addiction.


Alcohol Rehab in Middle East

Alcohol Rehab in Middle East

In the past people who were deeply in the Islamic religion did not drink alcohol. It was against their faith. Every Muslim was desist from alcohol lest he be ready to face the punitive laws that prohibited alcohol consumption in Muslim dominated nations-eighty lashes for men and forty lashes for women. In fact women were not supposed to be drinking. In these countries water was the sole beverage and any distilled or fermented drinks were not readily available. In public places you couldn’t find these beverages. This culture has not come to a halt and that has only made matters worse for alcohol addicts as they cannot seek professional help in the open for fear of being punished for using alcohol in the first place. It is well known fact that the Middle East and many Gulf States that are obviously Islamic nations have very strict alcohol laws.  There are very many cases where people found in possession of alcohol in public places have faced very severe penalties even death sentences. Whilst things have changed over a time and alcohol is fairly easily obtained in hotels and on the black market, severe penalties are imposed on those found to be in possession of alcohol, and, worse still, if they are found intoxicated in public.


The fact that alcohol consumption is not allowed in public places has only made matters worse as it has led to an increase of drinking in private homes, where little attention is paid to the amount of alcohol consumed. Those who drink in private homes often exceed the below risk quantities making them susceptible to problem drinking. A lack of up-to-date information on safe drinking and the wide-spread presence of beverages with unregulated or contaminated alcohol content has resulted in a steady increase of Middle East residents with growing alcohol problems. Moreover, they suffer from a lack of access to local resources to help them to quit. There is therefore need for more rehab centers to spring in the Middle East to help those addicted to alcohol. Today there are some alcohol rehab centers that have begun to offer discrete, cultural sensitive support for residents from the Middle East who are struggling with alcohol addiction.

The strict laws of the Middle East countries in relation to alcohol consumption are blind to the fact that if anybody is suffering from his use of alcohol and he can’t cut down or stop drinking altogether, he has an alcohol addiction-a problem that can’t be solved by even the strictest laws on the planet earth. An addict is a victim that should not be punished but should be helped and offered support to be free from cravings for alcohol. A person with an alcohol addiction may or may not be physically dependent on alcohol. People who haven’t developed physical dependency to alcohol can still be addicted: that is, they can’t control, cut down or stop using, even when drinking alcohol is negatively impacting their life. This therefore means that you do not need to be physically dependent on alcohol to seek support in a rehab. You should begin as early as possible to reduce the effects of alcohol.

However it is good to note that most people become chained to alcohol use at the dependence stage because that is when their attempts to stop alcohol use are met by very severe withdrawal symptoms. The available Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation centers in the Middle East has helped persons from all over the region lead a clean and sober life though various treatment programs. These rehab centers in the Middle East serve people from Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Iran, and Jordan. Since most countries in the Middle East are not proactive but rather strictly reactive to alcohol addicts, these rehab centers are creating a home for the alcohol addicts giving them support that no other public institution can ever offer. Most of the rehabs are located at discreet locations and are quite luxurious attracting alcohol addicts seeking help.


Rehabs offer Inpatient and outpatient treatments

To those victims of alcohol addiction and dependency seeking help, the rehabs have two options that can be used to help them win this war against unstoppable use of alcohol. The recovery and rehabilitation professionals will however guide you on the best course to take. The rehab centers will also avail you the best paraphernalia to help you stop drinking alcohol depending on the program you have chosen. There are two main choices in seeking drug and alcohol services- inpatient treatment and outpatient treatment. With inpatient treatment, you become a resident at the rehabilitation center, living and partaking in therapy on-site. The inpatient treatment has been the most effective method as the patient is kept away from the triggers that could make quitting alcohol drinking a problem. He is also available all the time and the doctors can closely monitor his progress with the treatment.

However there are situations when an addict can only be on the outpatient treatment program. It involves visiting the rehab centers for treatments sessions throughout the week for as long as the doctors have found best and prescribed. It is also effective but the victim will need to avoid the triggers by himself and it needs self-discipline.

Alcoholism is a vice that should be fought by all means that is why we at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center are committed to availing help to addicts and offering them a place to call home. We offer NER Treatment and Amino acid therapy that are the most effective approaches to addiction treatment and recovery. You call on Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) today and begin your journey to victory against addiction.

Alcohol Rehab in Middle East