Tag Archives: Monoamine neurotransmitter


Mesolimbic pathways and drug seeking

Mesolimbic pathways

Mesolimbic pathways and drug seeking. We’ve got to clean our mind from all intoxication of drug addiction

Mesolimbic pathways and drug seeking: Drug cravings to the brain

From our basic understanding of the purpose and functioning of the brain’s reward system in the previous postings, we can interrogate it a little bit further in several ways. The circuit most associated with pleasure and reward is the mesolimbic pathways which are located in the brainstem. The objective of this area of the brain is primarily concerned with basic survival. Within the mesolimbic pathways is an area called the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA projects to the nucleus accumbens (thought to be the reward center). The neurotransmitter most commonly linked with the mesolimbic system is dopamine. Many people consider dopamine to be the driving force behind the human pursuit of pleasure. The release of dopamine is a pleasurable sensation. The release of dopamine motivates us to repeat behaviors or activities that prompted this release. This system’s purpose was to promote survival by rewarding life-sustaining behaviors such eating and procreation.

All addictive drugs and activities release varying amounts of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens with stimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine releasing the most. However, when it comes to drugs like alcohol or heroin, the brain’s own opiate system (endorphins) also gets involved. Doctor Akoury further says that even though different forms of addictions have different effects in the nucleus accumbens, they share one common denominator that they all activate the reward system which in turn motivates us to repeat those behaviors, even though they may be harmful. Besides what we have discussed about the concepts of reward, pleasure, and craving together, it is however very important to appreciate that there is a distinction between pleasure-seeking and drug seeking. Note that pleasure-seeking is all about the pleasurable, rewarding aspect of addiction while drug-seeking refer to the craving aspect of addiction. Dopamine may be more involved in drug-seeking (craving) component of addiction. The opiate (endorphin), GABA, or glutamatergic systems may be more involved in a pleasure-seeking aspect of addiction too.

Mesolimbic pathways and drug seeking: Keeping the brain free from all attacks

Pleasure-seeking and drug-seeking (cravings) are interrelated, yet distinct. Research has established that natural rewards (food, water, sex) typically lessen their influence on the reward system over time. As a behavior occurs more often, dopamine levels tend to decrease in the process. Psychologists call this habituation. This makes sense. Once you’ve eaten enough food, you don’t need to be rewarded for eating more food. Then you would be eating too much, or too much of one type of food. Therefore everyone needs to take heed of keeping the brain free from all attacks be it from substances or otherwise. Talking to the experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury should be your starting point. Call and make that appointment today for the commencement of your journey to full recovery from your addiction.

Mesolimbic pathways and drug seeking: Drug cravings to the brain







Brain activities network flows

Brain activities network

Brain activities network flows uninterrupted only when substances of abuse are kept at bay

Brain activities network flows: How drugs affect the brain?

Drugs and misuse of alcohol are the two primary reasons why many mental health problems are being seen today in the lives of young people. Because of that, it is important that we appreciate the brain activities network flows. Alcohol and drug abuse impacts on the brains health badly. Being a complex communication network of numerous neurons also known as nerve cells, doctor Dalal Akoury a veteran addiction expert explains that, in just a minute, the neurons can pass tonnes and tonnes of communication within the brain. Spinal column and the nerves. That is to say, the nerve network coordinates everything in the body system. According to the experts from AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center which is an addiction treatment facility established by doctor Dalal Akoury, for us to understand brain communication network flows well, understanding the functions of these networks is very essential. Like for instance:

Brain activities network flows: Neurons

It will interest you to note that the human brain contains not less than100 billion neurons nerve cells working continuously remitting and receiving message signals. The flow is in a way that within a neuron, communications flows from the cell body down the axon through the axon terminal in the form of electrical impulses. The information is then sent to other neurons with the help of neurotransmitters. This flow needs the brain to be in good health without any impurities inform of drugs says doctor Akoury. As we progress into the discussion, drugs kill the brain and therefore, if you or anyone you know is struggling with drug addiction, your brain communication network flows will be ineffective and action needs to be taken immediately. You can talk to doctor Akoury today on telephone number 843 213 1480 for further direction.

These are the brain chemical envoys or messengers that enables information to move from one neuron to another by creating chemical messengers known as neurotransmitters. From this point the axon terminal releases neurotransmitters that travel across the space also known as the synapse to nearby neurons. Then the transmitter attaches to receptors on the nearby neuron.


These are brains chemical recipients/receivers whereby when the neurotransmitter approaches the nearby neuron, it attaches it to a special site on that neuron known as a receptor. For clarity, a neurotransmitter and its receptor functions the same way a key and lock operates. That is to say, a very specific mechanism makes sure that each receptor will forward the right message only after interacting with the right kind of neurotransmitter.


The moment the neurotransmitters do their job, they are pulled back into their original neuron by transporters. This recycling process shuts off the signal between the neurons.

Finally, four networks are very essential in the proper functionality of the brain. Any attack on their well-being by way of alcohol and drug abuse immediately disrupts the brain communication network flows. You can make a decision now to keep a healthy brain by scheduling for an appointment with doctor Akoury for the commencement of your recovery process today.

Brain activities network flows: How drugs affect the brain?








Dopamine Rush

Well balanced neurotransmitters

Well balanced neurotransmitters

Well balanced neurotransmitters is a serious need for every one.

Well balanced neurotransmitters: The threats of the imbalance

A well balanced neurotransmitters is a serious need for everyone. This must be done timely if we want to have a healthy life. To understand this better, we spoke to doctor Dalal Akoury MD President and founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center about this to get some answers. In her decades of experience in medicine, doctor Akoury is registering that neurotransmitter imbalances can actually cause problems in very many ways including those relating to moods, memory, addictions, energy, libido and sleep. As we progress into the discussion, doctor Akoury is posing some question to you to help you re-evaluate your position.

  • Do you have any area of your life where you feel you don’t have control over?
  • Are you a shopaholic, chocoholic, caffeine addict, or worse?
  • And finally do you get depressed for no good reason, feel overwhelmed by life, have trouble falling asleep, or are you harboring negative thoughts that you just can’t shake?

Did I speak your mind? It is important to note that if you answer yes to any of these questions, then it’s very possible that you have a neurotransmitter imbalance and this needs to be corrected if you have to be in proper control over your life. That now brings us to the next question.

Well balanced neurotransmitters: What are the neurotransmitters?

It may surprise you to note that the brain of a normal human being is composed of billions and billions of neurons which are the cells that communicates with each other via chemical messengers known as neurotransmitters. It therefore means that the defining features of drug intoxication and addiction can be traced to disruptions in cell-to-cell signaling.

Drugs of abuse alter the way people think, feel, and behave by disrupting neurotransmission, the process of communication between brain cells. Over the past few decades, studies have established that drug dependence and addiction are features of an organic brain disease caused by drugs’ cumulative impacts on neurotransmission. Scientists continue to build on this essential understanding with experiments to further elucidate the physiological bases for drug abuse vulnerability as well as the full dimensions and progression of the disease. The findings provide powerful leads to new medications and behavioral treatments.

Finally, now that you know the implications of not taking why you need to balance neurotransmitters, it will be of great help to you to periodically consult with experts like doctor Dalal Akoury for any concerns you may be having as far as balancing neurotransmitter is concerned. Up on scheduling for that appointment, doctor Akoury together with her team of experts will professionally attend to you and before you knew it, you will have your life back.

Well balanced neurotransmitters: The threats of the imbalance



Reward Deficieny syndrome

Reward deficiency syndrome and brain disease

Reward deficiency syndrome

Reward deficiency syndrome and brain disease. In fact, it is the reward deficiency syndrome that causes the compulsive use of alcohol and drugs that help to feel good, at least temporarily

Reward deficiency syndrome and brain disease: Rebuilding Neurotransmitter

A host of medical and lifestyle issues can disturb the healthy flow of neurotransmitters, including chronic stress, alcohol, drug abuse, genetics, poor diet, digestive disturbances and mal-absorption, micronutrient deficiency and more. The result can be Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), a term primarily used for hereditary chemical imbalances wherein the pleasure centers, which regulate feelings of well-being in the brain, fail to receive appropriate neural signals. As a result, the brain sends out urgent messages of craving. Doctor Dalal Akoury MD, President, and founder of the AWAREmed health and wellness resource center reiterates that, in the brains of addicts, various neurotransmissions are affected, depending upon the drug or drugs that have been used. As a result addicts experience difficulty concentrating and have mood swings, as well as having other physical symptoms.

Collectively, these symptoms are called cravings and withdrawals. Craving and withdrawal symptoms are a result of a neurochemical imbalance in the brain. If these imbalances are not addressed, life can be miserable to drug users and that is why doctor Akoury created this health facility with a primary objective of transforming each individual’s life through increasing awareness about health and wellness and by empowering individuals to find their own inner healing power. Besides that it will also interest you to note that, doctor Akoury’s practice focus on personalized medicine through healthy lifestyle choices that deal with primary prevention and underlying causes instead of patching up symptoms. This should motivate you to schedule an appointment with her now by calling her on telephone number 843 213 1480 for the commencement of your recovery process. And as you consider that, let’s look at some of the reward deficiency syndromes;

  • Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the brain that help to control states of consciousness, including moods.
  • Serotonin and GABA down-regulate electrical activity in the brain, thereby contributing to calm, peacefulness, or less anxiety.
  • Adrenaline and noradrenaline up-regulate electrical activity thereby promoting excitement, motivation, or, reducing depression and apathy.
  • Dopamine is the “feel good” brain chemical. It is the dance of these electro-chemicals that produce emotional balance and feelings of well-being.

Reward deficiency syndrome and brain disease: When the neurochemicals are impaired

When the proper flow, or cascade, of these neurochemicals is impaired, or, the brain’s receptors are blocked, then a variety of problems can develop, including:

  • Mood instability
  • Irritability
  • Agitation
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Apathy
  • Impaired concentration
  • Trouble focusing
  • Despair

Finally, it is the Reward Deficiency Syndrome that causes the compulsive use of alcohol and drugs that help to feel good, at least temporarily. In addition to alcohol, people use nicotine, other stimulants, illicit drugs, junk foods, sugars, or thrill-seeking behaviors such as gambling, sex, and Internet porn. Unfortunately, this only provides temporary relief while bringing with it the possibility of more long-term problems. For lasting solution to addiction, only experts on the same line will liberate you from this problem. Doctor Dalal Akoury is an expert you can rely on for whatever addiction you are going through.

Reward deficiency syndrome and brain disease: Rebuilding Neurotransmitter



weight loss diet

Exploring drug addiction causes

Exploring drug addiction

Exploring drug addiction causes was not embraced by our great grandparents and so the effects right now are in the brain.Neurochemical reward and drug addiction effects on the brain may include certain pleasurable principle and that explains why the brain needs to be protected the most

Exploring drug addiction causes: The nutrition way

It is almost becoming common knowledge that alcohols among other substances are the commonly abused drugs not just in your state, but across the globe. Because of this, many lives are lost in the process and so we all need to pool together to educate our young ones on the dangers of substance abuse by way of exploring drug addiction causes and effective solutions. With the knowledge of this common factor, it is equally important to appreciate that what may not be common in the public knowledge is the possible roots and genesis of drug taking and drug addiction. This is what we want to address in this article as we progress into the discussion. In our last article, we introduced the causes sighting poor diet and the brains consequent magnetic and chemical imbalance as some of the primary root causes of drug taking and drug addiction. Progressively, we want to engage the expertise of professionals from AWAREmed health and wellness resource center under the leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury MD by way of exploring drug addiction causes. And in doing so, our focus is going to be on the deficiency of nutrients as we progressed into the discussion.

Exploring drug addiction causes: Serotonin

Diet is the key to the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin which has been linked to drug taking. The dietary precursor for serotonin is the amino acid tryptophan which is low in the high-protein diet and high in a high-carbohydrate diet. The effects of drug taking may either increase or decrease levels of serotonin in the brain depending on the patient taking the drug. Individuals responds differently where in some people, alcohol increases their serotonin levels, possibly by decreasing levels of other competing amino acids in the blood as they reach the blood-brain barrier, causing them to relax. While other people may find alcohol and sugar decrease serotonin in the brain causing depression or aggression. And in fact, many criminals, as well as those struggling with chronic depression have been found with this condition.

Exploring drug addiction causes: Poor diet and deficiency of serotonin

Poor carbohydrates (sugar) with high protein (meat) are possible elements of abnormal low serotonin levels. The increase in meat and sugar and other refined carbohydrates consumption like junk food over the last two decades may have resulted in generally low brain serotonin levels which may explain the recent epidemic of childhood depression in our society today. Serotonin deficiency has also been linked by researchers to various state of mental illness, drug-taking, and violent crime.

Tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin (5HT), is believed to be a controlling factor in the CNS, affecting the people’s moods, aggression, pain, anxiety, sleep, memory, eating behavior, addictive behavior, temperature, endocrine and motor regulation. Abnormalities of 5HT include Parkinson’s disease, MS, sleep disorders Huntington’s, schizophrenia, mania, depression, hypersexuality, bulimia, and much more.

Deficiency of tryptophan and tyrosine, the precursors of serotonergic and catecholamine systems have been found in eight adolescents with impulsive behavior. Thirteen studies of serotonin in aggressive cases have been reported with all showing the concentration of 5-HIAA as cerebrospinal fluid are inversely related to aggression, irritability, hostility and criminal activity, further explaining why seeking for professional input from doctor Akoury from time to time is very important not just for you, but to the entire family.

Exploring drug addiction causes: The nutrition way