Tag Archives: MPTP

Methamphetamine Use May Risk Development of Parkinson’s Disease

Methamphetamine Use May Predispose Consumers to Future Development of Parkinson’s Disease

There are several neurodegenerative disorders but it will still not be right for anybody to talk about neurodegenerative disorders without mentioning the Parkinson’s disease. This disorder is the second most common after Alzheimer’s disease and it is affecting approximately ten million people worldwide. The probability of a person suffering from this disease increases with age with most people being diagnosed after the age of 50. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related. These include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking and gait. However, the symptoms worsens as time passes by, these may include cognitive and behavioral problems with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems. PD is caused by degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons that project to the striatum. The loss of striatal dopamine is responsible for the major symptoms of the disease. Although a small proportion of cases can be attributed to known genetic factors, most cases of PD are idiopathic. While the etiology of dopaminergic neuronal demise is mysterious, a combination of genetic susceptibilities, age, and environmental factors seems to play a critical role. Dopamine degeneration process in PD involves abnormal protein handling, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, apoptotic processes, and microglial activation or neuroinflammation.


Studies on animals on methamphetamine toxicity

Studies done on animals have shown that methamphetamine can cause long-term dopamine terminal damage as well as dopamine neuronal body loss. In rodents, repeated administration of methamphetamine causes a decrease in dopaminergic markers such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter. Accompanied by a reduction in TH activity, reduced levels of dopamine and its metabolites and decreased levels of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). These effects occur primarily in the striatum but also in the cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Methamphetamine induces neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner as do other amphetamine-derivatives like MDMA. Although partial recovery of TH and dopamine transport fibers occurs after methamphetamine administration, methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity is persistent. In mice, the greatest dopaminergic fiber loss is seen 24 hours after methamphetamine administration. Neurotoxic effects persist for more than seven days after methamphetamine exposure and one month after MDMA exposure. Drugs that induce PD symptoms and TH loss such as MPTP in mice also show a partial recovery with time in nonhuman monkeys and mice. The time courses and degrees of TH and dopamine transport fiber recovery after methamphetamine or after MDMA exposure are similar, suggesting terminal regrowth, as these two proteins are independently regulated. Researchers have also noted that there is partial recovery of dopamine levels in the striatum strongly suggesting that the regrown terminals are functional. However the mechanisms responsible for partial recovery are not known, but it is speculated that it might involve compensatory sprouting and branching as has been reported for regrowth following MPTP-induced damage. Dopamine terminal recovery has also been described in rhesus monkeys and velvet monkeys, although it appears to occur on a slower timescale than in mice. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic damage persists for more than 12 weeks in velvet monkeys and more than 3 years in rhesus monkeys, demonstrating the persistence of methamphetamine-induced brain damage.

Methamphetamine Toxicity in the Substantia Nigra

This drug doesn’t only cause fiber loss in TH but also produces dopamine cell body loss in the substantia nigra as shown in tests in mice that were treated with 3 methamphetamine injections (5 mg/kg) at 3-hour intervals. From the counts it is evident that 20 to 25% dopaminergic cell loss, measured at different time are linked to exposure to methamphetamine. The observed pattern of TH-stained neuron loss is very similar to the pattern of Nissl-stained neuron loss, indicating that neuronal loss is specific to dopaminergic neurons. Dopamine cell body loss was confirmed via staining with Fluoro-Jade, a general marker of neuronal degeneration that fluoresces after administration of known dopaminergic toxins such as 6-OHDA and MPTP. Fluoro-Jade stains scattered neurons degenerated in the substantia nigra after methamphetamine treatment. there is a possibility that the lack of complete recovery of TH fibers in the striatum is related to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra similar to what occurs in Parkinson’s disease.


Increased Risk of Parkinson’s Disease in Methamphetamine Abusers

There are literatures that have linked the abuse of amphetamine to the later development of PD. In a report of a study done by Callaghan and his colleagues, there is an increase in of PD in methamphetamine users in an epidemiological investigation based on data from California statewide hospital discharge records. The researchers identified 1,863 methamphetamine users, 9,315 patients hospitalized for appendicitis as a nondrug control group, and 1,720 cocaine users as a drug control group. All subjects were aged at least 50 years, had been hospitalized in California between 1990 and 2000, and had been followed for up to 10 years after discharge. The methamphetamine user group showed an elevated incidence of PD, with a 165% higher risk for development of PD than the patients from the control group. the results have been confirmed by the same group after doing the same research but in a much broader scope; 40,000 people hospitalized for methamphetamine versus 200,000 for appendicitis and 35,000 for cocaine and a 16-year follow-up period. From these two studies it is evident that methamphetamine use increases the chances of PD development in adulthood.

Drug abuse, addiction and independence are problems that people grapple with every day. These problems need to be treated effectively through integrative medicine. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert at this.  Call her on (843) 213-1480 for help.

Methamphetamine Use May Predispose Consumers to Future Development of Parkinson’s Disease



Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox

Effect of toxins and neurotoxicity in pathogenesis of obesity

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox; Obesity is a metabolic disorder that can be characterized by abnormal accumulation of fat with associated co-morbidities. According to World Health Organization (WHO, 2010), over 300 million adults and 12 million children are obese, globally. Obesity is a complex disorder that involved several causatives including genetic, environmental and other factors. Obesity results in impaired energy homeostasis that is regulated by the higher centers. Studies have confirmed the role of hypothalamus in obesity (Kennedy 1953). However, the complete role of hypothalamus on fat regulation is unknown. Environmental toxins could contribute to neuronal damage, neurotoxicity and obesity in humans (Chung and Yoon 2008; Edwards and Myers 2008). Obesity due to environmental toxins is often less studied by the research community.

Industrial heavy metals and biotoxins exposure could cause obesity in humans. A study conducted by Turunen et al (2008) has suggested that increased marine fish consumptions are linked with higher exposure to environmental toxins and obesity risk. Obesity could increase the susceptibility of metal-induced cardiovascular effects (Chen et al. 2007; Lant and Storey 2010). Neuronal control is the main component of fat regulation and energy homeostasis maintenance. Gross anomalies in the frontal lobe could contribute to obesity (Pannacciulli et al. 2006; Taki et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2005). Experimental studies have demonstrated the direct association between increased adiposity and exacerbated neurodegeneration (Chen and Lipton 2006; Moroz et al. 2008; Sriram et al. 2002). Diabetic experimental animals fed with high-fat diet have exhibited symptoms of obesity with reduced brain weight and brain substrates including tau proteins (Moroz et al. 2008).

In experimental animals, methamphetamine induce dopaminergic neurotoxicity with reduced levels of striatal dopamine, dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase (Deng and Cadet 1999; Kogan et al. 1976; Sonsalla et al. 1989) and marked degree of neurodegeneration. When compared to lean experimental animals, the neurotoxic insult effects of methamphetamine were exaggerated in obese animals. Administration of methamphetamine could result in up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 in the obese animals. These effects reduce ATP yield and cause obesity. Increased adipocyte apoptosis was reported in obese individuals with progressive neurodegeneration (Bharathi et al. 2006; Hirata 2002; Koh 2001; Ong and Farooqui 2005). In experimental animal studies, neurotoxins induced polyQ aggregation that was mediated by daf-16 and insulin-signaling pathway that contributes to obesity (Voisine et al. 2007; Ayyadevara et al. 2008; Gami et al. 2006; Grad and Lemire 2004; Inoue et al. 2005; Tullet et al. 2008). These studies have confirmed that obesity aggravates or induce neurodegeneration with impaired release of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (Belsare et al. 2010).

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox. Addictive substances such as MPTP are highly lipophilic in nature that readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cell membranes. The neuroactive chemical is metabolized intra-cellularly into MPP+. Due to polarity, the xenobiotic is released and taken up by dopamine metabolizing cells via the DAT ((Russ et al. 1996; Javitch et al. 1985). MPP+ inactivates complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain in the dopaminergic neurons (Mizuno et al, 1988) and reduce ATP levels with increased free radical generation. These molecular changes contribute to neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons and obesity.

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox; * Detoxification and weight loss

Proper detoxification is vital for prevention of obesity and to promote weight loss among obese individuals. Detoxification process significantly reduces white adipose tissue storage in the vital organs and prevents generation of excessive fatty acids which are toxic to biological membrane.

Exposure to fat soluble toxins such as mold, PCB’s, formaldehyde, alcohol, pesticides and acetaldehyde due to digestive toxicity or overgrowth of intestinal candida could increase the risk of neurotoxicity and obesity. In low levels of toxicity, these environmental toxins cause thyroid dysfunction, liver degeneration and cellular health (Koob GF & Volkow ND, 2010; Spooren W et al, 2010; Purzycki CB & Shain DH, 2010; Hiestand PC et al, 2008).

Excessive exposure to these toxins could cause rapid weight gain with impaired defense mechanisms. Toxic challenges could contribute to neurotoxicity and metabolic crash. The role of fat-soluble toxins on neurotoxicity is mediated by activation of immune system and brain cell damage. These changes contribute to obesity and addictive behaviours with risk of Parkinsonism and Alzheimer’s disease (Russell L et al, 1991; Barone R et al, 2007).

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox under the supervision of a trusted qualified physician who understands proper and safe detox. Dr. Dalal Akoury the Founder of AWAREmed can coach through Healthy detox. Call 843-213-1480

The aim of the detoxification is to reduce the accumulation of fat-soluble toxins in the vital organs and circulation that contributes to obesity. Detoxification process promotes weight loss in a natural way by preventing neurotoxicity associated with dopaminergic and leptin pathways. Generally, detoxification includes tailored diet such as Leptin diet with moderate exercise regimen to meet the individualized needs and to relive stress. Detoxification programmes could be organ-specific including liver, bowel or general. Healthy weight loss programme should include proper detoxification with healthy and balanced diet.

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox * Liver detox and its effect on weight loss

 Modern lifestyle with stress is a major contributing factor for obesity and unhealthy lifestyle. In the recent days, detoxification as a potential weight loss method is gaining steam among the health conscious individuals. Detoxification programme includes healthy diet with balanced nutritional supplements to flush out the toxins. Liver detoxification process includes drinking of adequate levels of water with organic foods such as fresh fruits, raw and nutritious vegetables to aid liver health.

During active liver detox process, consumption of alcohol, caffeinated beverages, refined and/or processed food or tobacco are not allowed. These changes could improve the liver health; help the tissues to purge the toxin and to regenerate.

Liver detox diet mostly comprised of antioxidants, fiber rich diet with lifestyle changes and exercise. Physical activity including moderate exercising is recommended to aid toxin elimination via the sweat and stools. Liver cleansing diets generally promote intestinal health with proper elimination of the waste substances including urine and stools.

Liver detox aids weight loss by reducing the stress mechanisms and negative neural feedback mechanisms that are linked with obesity. Liver detoxification cleanses the liver toxins and aids proper functioning including normal synthesis of enzymes, optimization of food assimilation and cholesterol regulation.

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox * Proper elimination of stool, urine, skin to achieve weight loss

Proper detox programme should aid complete elimination of stool, urine and sweat to improve weight loss among obese individuals. In addition with body’s own natural detoxification process, detox diets comprised of high-fiber diet, complex carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals improve the excretory system to function properly.

Adequate water consumptions regulate the renal system and aids elimination of waste substances including urea, salts, creatinine and uric acid. Normal fluid elimination could optimize fluid retention/balance and prevents obesity. Proper elimination of urine and sweat prevents edema and improve weight loss among obese individuals. Daily defecation is vital for weight loss. Weight loss diet should promote colonic microbiome that detoxify food wastes and strengthen intestinal walls against the entry of pathogenic microorganisms.

Liver aids detoxification process and converts lipid-soluble chemicals into water-soluble compounds and promotes renal excretion. Lipid-soluble toxins are the main contributors of neurotoxicity and obesity. Some toxins are also eliminated via the lungs and skin during moderate physical activities including exercise.

Proper elimination of waste substances as urine, sweat and stools acts a natural detoxification process and reduce the effects of naturally-derived toxins in the body. To promote proper elimination of urine, sweat and stools it is important to consume required levels of water with balanced, fiber-rich diet. These steps can increase satiety and maintains optimal blood glucose with proper elimination of waste substances. Normal blood glucose homeostasis with balanced food could reduce the obesity risk in humans.

 Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox What is *The Proper detoxification and mechanisms that facilitate weight loss?

 Proper detoxification is important for balance of body mechanisms to lose weight. Some processes including treatment of hormonal imbalances, neutralization or enzyme potentiated desensitization with exercise could facilitate weight loss.

Treatment of hormonal imbalances, particularly adrenal and thyroid functions could improve the metabolic rate. Hormonal imbalances could delay the metabolic rate and also the detoxification process

 Neutralization or Enzyme Potentiated Desensitization could reduce the sensitization against harmful chemicals and to reduce toxic load in the body. Decreased free radicals generation could prevent the onset of metabolic syndrome, a key causative of obesity. Normalization of glucose and other metabolic pathways could facilitate weight loss among obese individuals. (McEwen LM, 1973; McEwen LM, 1975)

When combined with patient-specific exercises, the metabolic rate could be increased with reduced gut transit time. These mechanisms lower the food clearance rate from the gut and increase satiety. Improved glucose metabolism with food control could facilitate weight loss.

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox addresses the* Links between detoxification pathways and weight loss

 Detoxification promotes healthy weight loss by intake of nutrients with less calories, sugar and salt which are addictive in nature that contributes to obesity. Detoxification reduces dopaminergic cellular neurotoxicity and obesity.

Detoxification processes directly affects the leptin, insulin and dopamine pathways that contributes to food addiction and cravings. Fiber-rich diets with nutrients increase plasma ghrelin levels that regulate insulin and leptin pathways. Controlled and healthy weight loss can be achieved by regulation of white adipose tissue formation which depends on insulin and leptin pathways. Ghrelin controls satiety and appetite and promotes weight loss among obese individuals.

Healthy Rapid Weight Loss Begins with Safe Detox under the supervision of a trusted qualified physician who understands proper and safe detox. Dr. Dalal Akoury the Founder of AWAREmed can coach through Healthy detox. Call 843-213-1480

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