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Neuroplasticity In The Mesolimbic Dopamine System And Cocaine Addiction

Neuroplasticity In The Mesolimbic Dopamine System And Cocaine Addiction

Cocaine is the most addictive of all forms substance abuse. It is characterized by a high compulsion and relapse. Despite several years of clinical research, scientists are yet to find an effective medication. However some studies indicate the activity of neurons in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which comprises cells in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) that develop into the medial and detour prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and accumbent, motivates cocaine reward thereby contributing to high compulsion.

Based on these research activities often called neuropharmacological studies, the addiction of cocaine is caused by neuroadaptations induced by the drug. This is so reportedly because of the learning, reward-related and memory processes of the mesolimbic dopamine systems’ circuitry where dopamine projections are developed.

Neuroadaptation Cause of Cocaine Compulsion

Neuroadaptations are understood to cause very high sensitivity to cocaine. They are also believed to cause hypersensitivity to cocaine-associated electrochemical signals such as irrational decision making and irregular cultured behaviors characterized by high insensitivity to dire consequences of addiction.           A major characteristics of cocaine addiction is its’s compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences and high rates of relapse during periods of abstinence. A current popular hypothesis is that compulsive cocaine use and cocaine relapse is due to drug-induced neuroadaptations in reward-related learning and memory processes, which cause hypersensitivity to cocaine-associated cues, impulsive decision making and abnormal habit-like learned behaviours that are insensitive to adverse consequences. Here, we review results from studies on the effect of cocaine exposure on selected signalling cascades, growth factors and physiological processes previously implicated in neuroplasticity underlying normal learning and memory. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate transmission, and synaptic plasticity (primarily in the form of long-term potentiation and depression, LTP and LTD). We also discuss the degree to which these cocaine-induced neuroplasticity changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system mediate cocaine psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-seeking behaviours, as assessed in animal models of drug addiction. Finally, we speculate on how these factors may interact to initiate and sustain cocaine psychomotor sensitization and cocaine seeking.

mesolimbic dopamine system

The premise that cocaine has a neuroadaptation effect to the chemical composition of certain parts of the brain has motivated various studies on the part of cellular actions and signaling forces that altogether causes neuro-synaptic plasticity. Effects of long-term exposure to cocaine on signaling forces, growth elements, psychosocial and physiological processes of reward transmission initially linked to neuroplasticity as a cause of mental recovery are a substantial number. They include extracellular-controlled kinase, distortion of normal neuron pathways and other neurotrophic factors, neuro-synaptic plasticity, and glutamate factors.

Neuroplasticity in Mesolimbic Dopamine System  

Neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to adjust to new environments or needs by developing new nerve cells throughout the body. It is the brain’s way of recovery. Neuroplasticity allows the cells to compensate for any injuries or diseases in the nerve system. It also allows the neurons reorganize themselves to perform new functions of the brain depending on changes in their working environment, also involves recovery from drug addiction such as that of cocaine.

Cocaine-induced neurochemical changes in glutamate transmissions and synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine system facilitates cocaine psychomotor high sensitivity, compulsion, self-injection, and reinstatement, being interesting aspects of study in shedding light into cocaine addiction menace has been reviewed time and again.

Experimental Evidence of Neuroplasticity on Long-Term Exposure to Cocaine

A key consideration in the above reviews has been what experimental evidence are needed to derive a conclusion of the particular effects of long-term exposure to cocaine on neuroplasticity and how those effects facilitate the learned behavioral symptoms associated with that.

Given this objective, researchers made a strict condition that if so cocaine-induced neuroplasticity causes certain attributer learned behavior then a reversal of the physiological processes that led to that state should, therefore, guarantee a reduced exhibition of such behavior.

After further intense studies on the same, the condition is continuously being met. This has led to yet another attempt to evaluate the role of cocaine-induced neurochemical alterations in glutamate transmissions, synaptic plasticity in VTA, accumbens and amyglada in as earlier mentioned psychomotor hypersensitivity and compulsive behavioral characteristic of the drug.

Many of those studies found out repeated cocaine administration amplified the rate of activity of ERK in the development areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which includes the accumbens, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex of the brain.

ERK Phosphorylation in Mesolimbic Dopamine System

Triggers of increased ERK phosphorylation includes D1 dopamine receptors, (PKA) the dependent protein kinase and methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). On the other hand it was observed triggers of reduced ERK phosphorylation include CREB the transcription factor, mitogen-and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK-1), and immediate early genes Fos and Zif268.

Extracellular signal-controlled kinase activity and the subsequent ERK-mediated reduced gene transcription are crucial for increased cocaine-induced psych as a result of exposure to the drug. On the other hand increased cocaine-induced ERK activity in the mesolimbic dopamine system does not facilitate the development of psych after a considerable time of withdrawal. Injection of either SL327 or VTA therefore before cocaine administration lessens sensitized the drug-induced movement during experimental tests for expression of psychomotor sensitization if done some time after withdrawal.

mesolimbic dopamine system

Cocaine Psychomotor Sensitization

More recent reports indicated psychomotor cocaine sensitization after several weeks of withdrawal from the drug increased ERK2 activity. This was linked to increased acumen α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and the receptor’s (AMPAR’s) surface appearance. However, no increases in ERK2 activity nor AMPAR surface expressions were observed in the specimens that did not exhibit psychomotor cocaine sensitization even after repeated non-dependent cocaine exposure and after some time of withdrawal.

Acumen’s ERK rate of activity possibly serves two specific roles in facilitating rewarding effects of the psychostimulant in a CPP procedure. During CPP training, the accumben’s rate of activity mediates consolidation of the learned behavior between the drug’s unconditioned rewarding effects and the drug’s related context during the CPP testing, ERK movement mediates serious expression of cocaine’s other habituated responses.

Systemic SL327 inoculations before cocaine CPP training prevented cocaine-induced accumbens, ERK phosphorylation and the subsequent expression of cocaine CPP. PD98059 accumben injections are given either before or after CPP training sessions blocked subsequent amphetamine CPP expression.

The relevance of the above fascinating correlational findings of cocaine’s compulsive characteristic, its’ psychomotor sensitization, and the ERK phosphorylation in the mesolimbic dopamine system is, however, a subject for further scientific, clinical research. Please sign up for this year’s August Integrative Addiction Medicine Conference to learn more about the same. Click the following link to get your chance to participate in the event: http://www.integrativeaddiction2015.com.

Neuroplasticity In The Mesolimbic Dopamine System And Cocaine Addiction

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Treatment of Multiple sclerosis With Stem cell

Stem cell treatment for Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosisMultiple sclerosis is a disease of the Central Nervous System that is characterized by demyelination and inflammation. In a nutshell, MS is often described as an inflammatory demyelinating condition. Myelin is a layer of fatty that covers the nerves maintaining their health and flexibility. It is demyelination that causes spasms that are common with MS patients. MS occurs when the body’s own immune system attacks the cells that surround and protect neurons. As people lose myelin surrounding their nerves they start feeling weak or having trouble walking. Over time the disease progresses and people may end up with more severe symptoms included paralysis. About 400,000 people are living with MS in the U.S and the figures may continue to grow if better treatments are not availed in good time to help treat the disease.

To help those debilitated by this disease researchers have been pursuing more effective methods of treating this disease. One of the areas that have attracted attention of many researchers is the possibility of stem cells treating the disease. the fact that researchers have been speculating that stem cells can be effective in treatment of multiple sclerosis does surprise me and so it shouldn’t surprise you too as these “shape shifters” have the rare ability of forming every tissue that is vital in the body and so can be used to replace any defective or malfunctioned tissues in the body. The use of stem cell therapy has been successful in the past in treating other diseases and hence has been viewed as a viable approach in treatment of MS and is being studied for its efficacy in improving the complications in patients with MS, through the use of stem cells. The stem cell therapy may help patients who don’t respond to typical drug treatment, want to reduce their reliance on medication or are looking to try stem cell therapy before starting drug treatment that they are afraid may lead to other complications like dependence.

What are stem cells?

Stem cells are special cells that are unprogrammed cells in the human body and are able to change shape and form other tissues. they can replicate several times giving rise to differentiated cells and this continues as the daughter cells have equal chances as the parent cells to replicate into even more complex tissues. Due to their ability to shift shape and form different types of cells, the stem cells have been targeted by doctors for treatment of various diseases. Today the stem cells biology is the center of a new science called regenerative medicine. These stem cells can be harvested in the bone marrow and in the adipose tissues and they can form neurons, bone, muscle, cartilage and other specialized types of cells. They have the potential to treat many diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Diabetes and some many more.

Can stem cells work in multiple sclerosis patients?

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system attacks and then subsequently damages the ‘myelin sheath’ protecting the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. This damage causes messages to and from the brain to be slowed, distorted or stopped altogether. This is what leads to the symptoms of multiple Sclerosis. It is the damage to the myelin sheath that is believed to cause relapses or other known as MS attacks. The symptoms of MS attacks can last for between 24 hours to several months. After sometime the nerve fibers become damaged and are destroyed completely and this escalates the symptoms of the multiple sclerosis and this leads to debilitation.

The stem cell therapy aids in treatment of multiple sclerosis by targeting the myelin sheath by introducing adult mesenchymal stem cells past the blood brain barrier so they may differentiate into and repair the myelin sheath nerve cells. This process is called remyelination. Further, being that Multiple Sclerosis is an auto-immune condition, adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to repair the immune system inhibiting its ability of attacking itself. This process is referred to as immunomodulation. Through remyelination and immunomodulation, there is hope to work toward improving the quality of lives of patients dealing with Multiple Sclerosis.

Stem cell therapy helps rebuild myelin sheath and boost recovery

Multiple sclerosisAccording to a research done at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield and Kings College Hospital, London, participants who were part of the research had their immune systems effectively ‘rebooted’ after stem cell therapy. The stem cell treatment is said to be the first to reverse the symptoms of MS, which has no cure, and affects around 100,000 people in Britain. Stem cells are so effective because they can become any cell in the body based on their environment.

“Since we started treating patients three years ago, some of the results we have seen have been miraculous,” Professor Basil Sharrack, a consultant neurologist at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, told The Sunday Times.

“This is not a word I would use lightly, but we have seen profound neurological improvements.” the professor concluded.

The stem cell therapy as used in treating MS involves harvesting the stem cells and stored after which aggressive medicine that are often used in treatment of cancer patients to completely destroy the immune system. After the immune system has been completely damaged then the doctors are infused into the patient’s body where they start to grow new red and white blood cells within just two weeks and hence help rebuild the myelin sheath. A month after treatment the patients’ immune system is fully rebuilt and hence boosts recovery.

Here at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center we are committed to availing the best integrative approaches to treatment of diseases. We advocate for dietary as well as natural healing to diseases wherever possible. Visit as at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina where Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) will be of help.

Stem cell treatment for Multiple sclerosis

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Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disorders

Adipose Derived Stem Cells to Treat Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disorders

There are very many neurodegenerative disorders that we humans have to battle with. Some of these neurodegenerative disorders are inflammatory. Inflammation is a common feature in some neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis. Microglial cells, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, become chronically activated and mediate pathology inducing inflammatory responses. This inflammation may be initiated as an immune response and while it does not cause the disease, it has been shown to aggravate the progression of the inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. Contrary to what many people think, inflammation does not initiate neurodegenerative disease but there is evidence that chronic inflammation involving microglia and astrocytes contribute to disease progression. The inflammatory response has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and MS. Currently, a major question is whether inhibition of the inflammatory response has the ability to reverse or slow the symptoms of disease.

Typically, inflammation is a defense mechanism against diverse insults, designed to remove noxious agents and to inhibit their detrimental effects. It consists of an astounding range of molecular and cellular mechanisms and an intricate network of controls to keep them in check. In neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation may be triggered by the accumulation of proteins with abnormal conformations or by signals emanating from injured neurons. Given the multiple functions of many inflammatory factors, it has been difficult to pinpoint their roles in specific pathological situations. Studies of genetically modified mice and of molecular pathways in activated glia are beginning to shed light on this issue. Through different studies it has been found that altered expression of different inflammatory factors can either aggravate or counteract neurodegenerative processes. Normally, inflammation should be beneficial but for some reasons inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders can form grounds for aggravation of these neurodegenerative disorders and so a viable means of treatment that should suppress inflammation and inhibit progression of these disorders should be utilized to help in treatment of these inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders.

Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Inflammation and Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. According to a new study, there are markers of inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid that protects the brain and spine from injury. This study linked these markers to symptoms like fatigue, depression and anxiety in patients with Parkinson’s disease and it is hoped that this discovery may make the treatment of this disease much easier.

This study was led by Lena Brundin who is an associate professor at the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University. This research was carried out as part of a team from Lund University in Sweden, Skåne University Hospital in Sweden and the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine in Jacksonville, Florida. The team measured a number of inflammatory markers in fluid samples of patients with Parkinson’s and in a control group without the disease.

“The degree of neuroinflammation was significantly associated with more severe depression, fatigue, and cognitive impairment even after controlling for factors such as age, gender and disease duration.” Prof. Brundin told the press.

However this is not the first study to link brain inflammation to Parkinson’s disease, there are previous studies that have linked it to non-motor symptoms like depression, fatigue and cognitive impairment. These past studies have indicated that inflammation in the brain could drive cell death, and drugs that target this process could offer new treatments to slow progression of the disease. For instance, a study published as far back as 2007 suggested that brain cell death in Parkinson’s may be reduced by blocking enzyme activity.

According to Prof. Brundin most of these previous studies looking at inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s patients have involved only small numbers of patients, often without comparing them to healthy controls. Despite this view, it is still evident that brain inflammation still has a role to play in aggravating neurodegenerative disorders.

Inflammation and Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the Central Nervous System that is characterized by demyelination and inflammation. In a nutshell, MS is often described as an inflammatory demyelinating condition. Myelin is a layer of fatty that covers the nerves maintaining their health and flexibility. It is demyelination that causes spasms that are common with MS patients.

Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Adipose derived stem cell therapy for these inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders

Owing to the ability of the stem cells to differentiate many times and form different body cells, they have been used in the past to regenerate or better yet to replace damaged cells in the body and this has made them a target for treatment of vey many conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders.

The stem cell therapy is now being used to grow dopamine producing nerve cells in laboratories to aid the treatment of this disease. The stem cells are majorly used in the labs when the genetic cause of the disease is known. The disease destroys cells but through stem cells therapy, the damaged cells can be replaced by healthy new cells of the same type. There are also researchers who have since done extensive work in applicability of stem cell therapy in treating PD. through research it has been shown that by releasing various kinds of noxious factors such as cytokines or proinflammatory molecules microglia may damage CNS cells. The stem cell therapy can be used to restore the parts of the nervous system that are destroyed as a result of release of cytokines in inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders.

Finally, Neurodegenerative disorders have debilitating effects on patients and should be fought by all means. This is why we at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center are committed to availing help to patients by availing integrative and safe treatment options to all our patients. In case you are troubled by any of these disorders, just call on Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) today and begin your journey to victory against neurodegenerative disorders

Adipose Derived Stem Cells to Treat In Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Current Stem Cell Treatments for Orthopedic Conditions

Current Stem Cell Treatments for Orthopedic Conditions

The stem cells have a unique ability to divide and become more specialized cells forming cells like bone, blood, or muscle. It is this ability that makes them attractive agents in many areas of medicine.  They can therefore be used to fight very many diseases in the regenerative medicine. Another advantage of stem cell therapy treatments is that autologous stem cell transport is made possible. This means that a person may be treated by doctors harvesting the stem cells from the patient and having the stem cells reimplanted into the same patient after finding out what was lacking in the patient. This reduces risks of infection as well as rejection which are helpful to the patient.

Today the stem cell therapy has become the game changing approach to treatment of orthopedic conditions. The ability of these stem cells to differentiate into more specialized cells has made them a valuable target in treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. Particularly the use of bone marrow stromal cells has attracted the attention of researchers who are in pursuit of finding out how these stem cells can be applied to end human misery caused by some diseases.

Stem cells are a unique type of cells, unlike the other cells in the body the stem cell have the ability to self-renew, they have the ability to divide several times giving rise to differentiated cells which are suited for specific functions hence can be used to replace or regenerate worn out cells in the body causing pain and discomfort. They can form cardiac, liver, fat, bone, cartilage, nerve, and connective tissue cells among other more specialized cells. Autologous stem cell therapy harnesses the regenerative power of your body’s own stem cells as a treatment option for degenerative orthopedic conditions.

body_skeleton

Today there are hospitals that have embraced the use of stem cells therapy in treating orthopedic conditions that were rather not easily treated in the past.  They offer this autologous stem cell therapy, which embraces the regenerative power of mesenchymal stem cells to give patients another treatment option for dealing with orthopedic conditions such as osteoarthritis and other degenerative joint conditions.  Patients who have the following diseases can benefit from stem cell therapy;

  • Degenerative Joint Changes, Including Osteoarthritis
  • Disc-related Back Pain
  • Meniscus Tears
  • Non-Union Fractures
  • Avascular Necrosis
  • Bone Loss
  • Cartilage Defects
  • Osteonecrosis
  • Tendonopathies

Orthopedic Areas in which Stem Cell Therapy is applicable

Spine – the stem cell therapy is applicable in treatment of the degenerated intervertebral disk which is known to cause pain and morbidity to many patients. The stem cell therapy brings into the field of regenerative medicine some bits of effectiveness.  In treatment of spine, patients who fail to respond to conservative medicine are left with one option-surgery that may have limited success and is also very invasive. Cell-based tissue treatments, including mesenchymal stem cell injections for degenerative disc subjects have been shown to diminish the incidence of low back pain, with clinical results noting improvement in back pain and regeneration of the disc tissue. In cases where spinal fusions are necessary, the use of stem cells through bone marrow aspirate has shown greater success in obtaining fusion through bone formation as compared to standard fusion techniques. Daily the number of institutions using the stem cell therapy to treat orthopedic conditions is increasing.

Articular Cartilage – when the articular cartilage is damaged, the potential to repair it are limited and this can often lead to arthritic diseases many years later. This damage may be caused by injury. The vulnerability of the articular cartilage makes it important for it to be well handled in cases of injury. studies that have been done on the applicability of the stem cell therapy to repair damaged articular cartilage have shown that stem cell therapy have favorable outcomes in this area than current techniques of micro fracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Most studies use mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow.

orthopedic therapyOsteonecrosis – Osteonecrosis or avascular ischemia of the hip can be associated with progression to an advanced arthritic joint. Standard treatment for osteonecrosis has included cord decompression with limited results. Stem cell therapy holds key to success in this area of orthopedic treatment. Studies on this area have shown that patients treated with mesenchymal stem cells improved than those treated with cord decompression.

 Bone – some damages on the bone may require transplantation of the bone plus other bone components. This is the effective way of restoring the bone structure. Being that the mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into bone cells and be used to replace the damaged bone components, stem cell therapy becomes the most appropriate treatment for bone damage.

Tendons and Ligaments –  Autografts, allografts, and resorbable materials have been used to repair defects in tendons and ligaments however these methods puts the life of the patient at risk which may include formation of scars, donor morbidity and even tissue rejection. With autologous stem cell transplant all these risks are alleviated plus the mesenchymal stem cells may also be used alongside tissue allografts as this gives better results by improving the biochemical properties of the tissue allografts.

Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for orthopedic diseases; you may tap into the unique medicinal properties of the stem cells to help you beat orthopedic conditions. Visit us at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Centre at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) an expert in integrative and regenerative medicine will be able to help.

Current Stem Cell Treatments for Orthopedic Conditions

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Stem Cell Therapy Is Non-Invasive Safe and Gives Fast Results

Stem Cell Therapy Is Non-Invasive Safe and Gives Fast Results

Stem cell therapy is an option to patients with degenerative diseases but would rather have treatments that are non-invasive. in fact the very nature in which stem cells work makes it a better option to patients as it has few risks and side effects are rarely life threatening (if there is). The stem cell therapy is applicable to those fighting aging, autism, diabetes, orthopedic conditions among other diseases. autologous stem cell transplant allows the cells harvested from a patient to be used in the same patient in fact on the day, this is because the mesenchymal stem cells that have the ability to form more differentiated cells like bone cells , liver cells, heart cells, muscle cells among other are available in enough amounts in the adipose tissues as well as in the bone marrow therefore there is no need to keep the harvested cells in the petri dish in the laboratory to be cultured so as to be able to serve a desired purpose. They can be harvested on the same day and be reimpplanted into the target area in the patient’s body on the same day. Autologous stem cell transfer is a safe and effective procedure and strategy to treatment of diseases since the cells used are from the patient and therefore there is no risk of donor shortage, donor morbidity, cell rejection and even contacting diseases from the donor.

stem cell therapy

Autologous stem cell therapy is non-invasive and gives fast results

Autologous stem cell transplant refers to a case where the stem cells harvested are from the patient to be treated. Normally, the body has stem cells in the bone marrow, in muscle tissues and also in the adipose tissues.  These stem cells turn into red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets to help your body stay healthy. However there are situations when the amount of stem cells in the body is not enough to keep you healthy. This may be caused by some diseases like multiple myeloma or by aging. When this happens there will be need for supplementing the amounts of the stem cells so that they can be able to offer protection to your body. This calls for stem cell transplant which may be done by placing healthy stem cells in the patients’ body through an IV to restore the normal functions of the stem cells. At times the stem cells may be harvested from outside the body especially from placentas after successful normal delivery, but mostly the stem cells are harvested from the patients’ body since autologous transplant is safer and time saving. Autologous stem cell transplant is safer since the cells are from the body and therefore there is no risk of them getting rejected neither to induce unpleasant allergic reaction. Autologous stem cell transplantation may provide the best outcome for patients, since autologous cells are readily available and do not entail prolonged hospital stays or sustained immunotoxic therapy. Among autologous adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells therapy has been applied with varying degrees of success in both animal models and in clinical trials.

Stem cell therapy tackles myriads of ailments

The medicinal properties of the stem cells have seen it being used for treatment of myriad ailments or as therapy for many diseases that are not even treatable. for the cases of these diseases that are not treatable the stem cell therapy helps to alleviate on the dangerous symptoms of the diseases and offer comfort as well as lengthen the lives of those who are victims of these diseases. needless to mention , the stem cell therapy has become a crucial component of regenerative medicine with many researchers still working around the subject to find out how its applicability can be useful in treating lifestyle diseases that have become a problem to this generation and many generations to come. The stem cell therapy has been proposed as an effective therapy in cases of autism, diabetes, arthritis and cancer among other diseases.

Mesenchymal stem cells holds key to regenerative medicine

Stem cell therapyResearchers have found a specific stem cell type to be very important in stem cell therapy to fight aging and other degenerative diseases as well as orthopedic conditions. These stem cells that are considered to be the most important are known as the mesenchymal stem cells.  The Mesenchymal stem cells are found in the bone marrow, the circulating blood as well as in adipose tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most important stem cells for orthopedic purposes as they help to   repair and replace damaged tissues hence restoring the cell functions.

The Mesenchymal stem cells are very helpful, however as a person ages the number of mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow gets depleted and this is what results in aging and increases a person’s chances of suffering from joint diseases and other orthopedic conditions. It is therefore very logical to go through a stem cell therapy as an anti-aging procedure that will also help on mitigating on the adverse effects of aging. Today these stem cells have now become an integral part of regenerative medicine. there is a lot that can be done with stem cell therapy, Visit us at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Centre at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) an expert in integrative and regenerative medicine will let you know how you can benefit from stem cell therapy.

Stem Cell Therapy Is Non-Invasive Safe and Gives Fast Results

 

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