Tag Archives: Neurotransmitters dysfuntion and obesity

How-Drug-Addiction-Affects-Serotonin-And-Dopamine

Neurotransmitter role in drug addiction

Neurotransmitter role

Neurotransmitter role in drug addiction. Movement, cognition, pleasure and motivation are some of the roles played by dopamine

Neurotransmitter role in drug addiction: The rewards that trigger release of dopamine

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain that plays vital roles in different behaviors. The major behaviors dopamine affects are movement, cognition, pleasure, and motivation. Dopamine is an essential component of the basal ganglia motor loop, as well as the neurotransmitter responsible for controlling the exchange of information from one brain area to another. However, it is the role that dopamine plays in pleasure and motivation that attracts the most neurobiologists attention. That is why our discussion is focusing on dopamine the neurotransmitter role in drug addiction. However, for a better understanding of this topic, we are going to be relying on the expert opinion of doctor Dalal Akoury (MD) President and founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center as well as Integrative Advanced Medicine Institute (IAM Institute).  The former is for treatment while the latter is tailored for training and equipping professionals in healthcare to offer an alternative treatment to their patients.

Did you know that in certain areas of the brain when dopamine is released, it gives one the feeling of pleasure or satisfaction? These feelings of satisfaction become desired causing the individual to grow a desire for the satisfaction. And satisfying that desire will necessitate the repeat behaviors causing the release of dopamine. For example food and sex release dopamine. That is why people want food even though their body does not need it and why people sometimes need sex. These two behaviors scientifically make sense since the body needs food to survive, and humans need to have sex to allow the race to survive. However, other, less natural behaviors have the same effect on one’s dopamine levels, and at times can even be more powerful.

Neurotransmitter role in drug addiction: Cocaine

Cocaine is by far more addictive than other substances. Cocaine chemically inhibits the natural dopamine cycle. Normally, after dopamine is released, it is recycled back into a dopamine transmitting neuron. However, cocaine binds to the dopamine and does not allow it to be recycled. Thus there is a buildup of dopamine, and it floods certain neural areas. The flood ends after about 30 minutes, and the person is left yearning to feel as he or she once did. That is how the addiction begins and with time adaptation builds up since the person is consistently behaving in the same way.

Many studies have been done targeting neural response to rewards. It was established that when one performed an action repeatedly and is given a reward randomly, the dopamine levels rises. If the reward is administered for example every four times the action was performed, the dopamine levels remained constant. Whereas when no reward is given dopamine levels dropped. These random rewards can be seen in gambling and since the outcome is based on chance, one may not know prior if he or she will win. Therefore, if he or she wins, dopamine levels increases. However, unlike cocaine, gambling causes addiction in relatively low levels of participants. This is because Cocaine’s chemical input is influential on dopamine levels than gambling’s behavioral input meaning that only people whose dopamine levels are low become addicted to gambling. This may sound technical and complicated, but a phone call to doctor Akoury will make it much easier for you if only you can schedule an appointment today.

Neurotransmitter role in drug addiction: The rewards that trigger release of dopamine

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Obesity and weight lose

Obesity prevention sources

Obesity prevention sources

Obesity prevention sources must be appreciated if meaningful results is to be achieved

Obesity prevention sources: Developmental origins

Obesity is a condition which has been for a long time been seen to be a problem of choice and an unfortunate failure of will and self-restraint by many in the society. However, it has much deeper and more complex roots, which we are going to discuss in this article so that we get to know more about the origins of obesity. For instance genes clearly play a role in driving an individual’s propensity to gain excess weight, as does the environment and gene-environment interactions. Early-life influences, beginning with the intrauterine environment and continuing through the first few years of life, also shape the trajectory of weight gain and body fatness throughout the life course further communicating the need of moving in speed to finding the best possible ways of obesity prevention sources.

Because of the family history, doctor Dalal Akoury MD, President, and founder of AWAREmed health and wellness resource center says that, if a mother smokes during pregnancy or gains too much weight, there’s a greater chance that her child will be obese. Lack of sleep or too-rapid weight gain during infancy may also increase obesity risk. A proposal has been made by researchers that coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and other chronic diseases develop in part due to inadequate nutrition during life and infancy.

The gathered data is showing that higher birth weight is also associated with obesity, diabetes, and other adult diseases has helped extend this concept into the developmental origins hypothesis which encompasses the preconception period as well as many critical periods of fetal and infant development. During each of these periods, several factors appear to have a substantial impact on obesity in childhood and adulthood. I will be discussing some of the outlines of the key prenatal and early life influences on the development of adult weight and obesity, I want therefore to request you to keep reading and be adequately informed at the end of this article.

Obesity prevention sources: Prenatal influences on obesity

The warm, nutrient- and hormone-rich environment of the uterus have a profound effect on fetal development. Brief or fluctuating changes in the intrauterine environment at critical or sensitive periods of the developmental process, as well as longer-term alterations, could have irreversible, lifelong consequences. The three modifiable prenatal factors that appear to shape fetal nutrition and health in later life are:

  • The mother’s smoking habits during pregnancy.
  • The mother’s weight gain during pregnancy.
  • The mother’s blood sugar levels during pregnancy, specifically, when she develops pregnancy-related (gestational) diabetes.

It makes intuitive sense that the mother’s diet during pregnancy should also affect fetal development and birth weight, but evidence for this is inconsistent. This, therefore, means that timely action is inevitable. And that is why doctor Akoury founder this health facility to primarily transform each individual’s life through increasing awareness about health and wellness and by empowering individuals to find their own inner healing power. And she didn’t end there, in her (Akoury’s) practices, she is focusing on personalized medicine through healthy lifestyle choices that deal with primary prevention and underlying causes instead of patching up symptoms making her the better option for your treatment needs. You may now want to call her on telephone number 843 213 1480 for further professional deliberations.

Obesity prevention sources: Developmental origins

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Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods

Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods: When it is necessary to feed on good nutrition

Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods

Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods is very much in order in the management of the prevalence of drug addiction

In the process of seeking for solutions when it comes to defeating drug addiction, people often go for very big things, big rehabilitation institutions and expensive and elaborate addiction professionals. This is very much in order because the most important thing is the reclaiming one’s health and freedom back from the scourge of addiction. However what many may not know or if they do, then they don’t care about is the avenue of nutrition as a tool of fighting and eliminating all sorts of addictions you may be privy about. For quite a while now we have been posting articles touching on the use of healthy nutrition in the fight against substance abuse and we are not about to stop. We want all of us to have the knowledge so that the work of dealing with drug addiction can be made easier and much lighter to both the direct and indirect victims. From the expert’s point of view, correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods is one very important avenue available for containing the problem. Doctor Dalal Akoury (MD) who is a well-respected expert in addiction is of the opinion that psychoactive substances may lead to psychiatric problems because in many cases the substances can have toxic effects on brain chemistry. She adds that before detoxification is done, neurotransmitters are reduced due to poor nutrition which then alters the amino acid absorption and utilization. The implication of this is that the victims (addicts) are left feeling depressed, agitated and unregulated early in recovery. From the various researches done, it is believed that these imbalances will disappear over a couple of weeks however they may also last as long as one year after an addict becomes sober.

Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods: Moods and behavior abnormalities

For some, moods and behavior abnormalities may have been present before the substance abuse. With proper diagnosis of any possible underlying mental health disorders, a healthy diet and education on how nutrition influences mood and brain chemistry, recovery can be enhanced. An understanding of how food affects mood and the risk of substance abuse begins with macronutrients. And with carbohydrates being the body’s main source of energy it therefore means that without this macronutrient, the brain can’t function properly, blood sugar becomes unstable, and neurotransmitters become disrupted. Unstable blood sugar can lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, and cravings.

Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods: The role played by carbohydrates

Speaking to the experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury, we are able to professionally establish that carbohydrates aids in the production of serotonin which then facilitates a happy and stable mood; aids in sleep; and helps curb food cravings. Besides that low serotonin levels can also result in sleep problems, irritability, and depression. Remember that the release of insulin following the adequate consumption of carbohydrate facilitates the entry of glucose cells, where it’s used for energy that triggers tryptophan’s entry into the brain. Then folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 help the synthesis of tryptophan to serotonin. Ensuring that clients receive adequate carbohydrates and tryptophan-rich foods, such as dairy and meats, helps stabilize these reactions.

Amino acids which are the building blocks of protein, also forms the foundation of neurotransmitters. Doctor Dalal Akoury says that low levels of neurotransmitters, and more so dopamine, can trigger an individual to turn to substances to feel better, a factor which is common with most substances as they impact on the body’s dopamine levels. Remember that dopamine is made from the amino acid tyrosine, while serotonin is made from tryptophan. Therefore whenever an individual lacks either of these amino acids, synthesis of the respective neurotransmitter is disrupted, which then affects mood, aggression, and the desire for drugs or alcohol.

Dietary fat – this also plays a role in maintaining mental health. Because it affects inflammation and cell membrane integrity, limiting dietary fat directly influences mood. Research has shown that increased inflammation or pro-inflammatory cytokines result in more depressive symptoms.

Omega-3 fatty acid – the consumption of omega-3 fatty acid may help with depression by enabling the rejuvenation in the uptake of neurotransmitters and subsiding inflammation. According to the experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center having a proper balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids helps neurotransmitter receptors function, which in turn helps increase the amount of neurotransmitters that can be active in the brain. Besides that many experts have recommended supplements containing polyunsaturated fatty acids to help in the reduction of anxiety in people who are struggling with substance abuse.

Encouraging patients to drink adequate amounts of hydrating fluids also will help them manage mood while ensuring adequate absorption of any medications they take to prevent side effects from withdrawal or underlying psychiatric disorders. The following are some of the most common symptoms of dehydration irritability, trouble concentrating, and disorientation. Dehydration also commonly results from detoxification, so monitoring daily intake and output values will help determine appropriate fluid intake recommendations.

Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods: Reduce Cravings

Doctor Akoury is stating categorically that it is important to appreciate that conditions like anxiety, irritability and low mood or energy levels are commonly triggers for cravings. All of these symptoms can result from low blood sugar, dehydration, high levels of caffeine, and an unbalanced diet. Increased relapse occurs when an individual has poor eating habits, mainly because of the impact on cravings. Encouraging balanced meals and regular eating times helps patients decrease these events. Generally, a diet relatively high in complex carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and low in fat and sugar is recommended to help sustain recovery. It isn’t wise to advise clients to follow a high-protein diet since excess protein will strain the already damaged liver.

Finally in many cases during the early part of recovery, many patients will often struggle with differentiating hunger from cravings for drugs or alcohol and emotions. It is very normal for addicts at this point to commonly forget what normal hunger feels like and may perceive a craving for substances when actually they’re just hungry. Similarly, many addicts will switch to sweets to replace their drug dependency; some of this is as a result of seeking pleasurable foods that trigger a physiological response (such as increasing dopamine), emotional eating, or experiencing irregular blood sugar levels. Monitoring sweets intake may be important with some clients because up to 50% of substance abusers also have co-occurring eating disorders, so monitoring signs of binge behavior may help in properly identifying possible binge-eating disorder or bulimia. In conclusion substance abuse has no respect for anybody and therefore you are not equally safe. If for whatever reason you are struggling with any substance, do wait for too long to seek for help. Call doctor Akoury today and schedule for an appointment with her to get your treatment and recovery journey started immediately today.

Correcting addiction by normalizing neurotransmitters and moods: When it is necessary to feed on good nutrition

 

 

 

 

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Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive

mesolimbic dopamine system

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin is very crucial if we are to defeat all the elements of addiction that are associated with it.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin begins by first appreciating their roles into the brain. These drugs can be very addictive if taken in higher doses. In fact Ritalin works by increasing the dopamine output in the brain, which helps to improve concentration. Dopamine is also the neurotransmitter very much associated with reward and pleasure in the brain, and for this reason when Ritalin is taken in higher doses than the recommended amounts it can result in euphoria. Anything that causes a psychotropic reaction (a high) can result in a psychological addiction, and Ritalin is no different. Patients with ADHD who require Ritalin therapy are given the medication in gradually increasing dosages to slowly and steadily build up base levels of dopamine in the brain, and when this process occurs over time and in a controlled manner, there is no intoxication, and there is no risk of addiction.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Addictive if abused

When people take the medication for non-clinical reasons, they tend to take a higher dosage, do get high, and with prolonged abuse do find themselves addicted. Adults and children taking the medication for a legitimate medical condition, and following a doctor’s recommendations for dosage amounts and frequency, have little to worry about. Adults prescribed Ritalin sometimes do experiment with higher doses, and there have been thousands of cases where parents may also take and abuse their children’s medications. Although not as potent as a strict amphetamine, the abuse of Ritalin can be quite pleasurable, and is also associated positively with weight loss, and as such can be quite tempting.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Ritalin withdrawal symptoms

Doctor Dalal Akoury says that once a person becomes addicted to Ritalin, when they try to stop taking the drug, they will experience a syndrome of withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms of withdrawal include: Tiredness, anxiety, depression, lethargy, hunger, cravings and many other symptoms.

The withdrawal and detox off of Ritalin presents very similarly to other psycho stimulants like crystal meth and cocaine, and the symptoms are predominantly internal and psychological in nature. Detox can best be accomplished in a facility away from access to the drug, and with the prescription of appropriate psychiatric medications that can take the edge off the depression and anxiety.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Adderall

Adderall is commonly prescribed to patients who have difficulty controlling their actions, maintaining focus, or staying awake. It contains the active ingredients dextro-amphetamine and levo-amphetamine, both of which are psycho-stimulant amphetamine molecules. Adderall was first introduced into the public in 1996 as an instant-release (IR) drug by Shire Pharmaceuticals. In 2006, a new version, Adderall extended release (XR), was made available as well. While the instant-release drug requires 3 hours to reach its maximum plasma concentration after consumption, the extended release version takes up to 7 hours to do so. Some of the known side effects of Adderall include insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, and hallucination. Adderall has been found to be addictive and dangerous to the health of some patients. Several withdrawal symptoms include panic attacks, seizure, fatigue

, and depression.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: The Chemistry and Mechanisms behind Adderall

The structure and action of Adderall resembles that of recreational drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (also known as ecstacy). Adderall is a phenylalkylamine, consisting of a phenyl ring and nitrogen group. The molecular resemblance of Adderall to catecholamine neurotransmitters underlies the similarities in physiological function between Adderall and these natural neurotransmitters.

The amphetamines in Adderall can bind to receptors that are normally activated by specific catecholamines produced by different glands in the body (including the hypothalamus and adrenal medulla). Amphetamine can also result in the release of more neurotransmitters that can activate sensory regions throughout the nervous system. When these psycho-stimulants activate receptors in the brain, the emotional response consists of euphoria, insomnia, increased alertness, and, sometimes, anxiety or psychosis. Peripherally, the binding of amphetamine compounds to catecholamine receptors can result in a physical response that may include the vasoconstriction of blood vessels, tachycardia, and hypertension.

In addition to stimulating the release of catecholamines, the amphetamines in Adderall also inhibit the function of monoamine transporters, which function in the re-uptake and recycling of catecholamine neurotransmitters in order to terminate the neural signal by removing the neurotransmitters from the synapse. In effect, Adderall stimulates sensory systems by maintaining the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. Adderall also partakes in a “reverse-transport” or efflux process in which the amphetamines are transported from the synapse through the transporters into the presynaptic neurons and the catecholamines are simultaneously transported from the presynaptic neurons through the transporter into the synapse. This leads to an increased concentration of neurotransmitters in the synapse, allowing them to trigger receptors and activate the neuropsychological effects mentioned above. Finally, amphetamine and its analogs also enhance the synaptic neurotransmitter concentration by acting as competitive inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters. In all these if you want to be safe, it is necessary that you keep in constant consultation with the experts from AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury and you will not be caught an aware.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Potential for Abuse

Adderall has high risk for dependence and addiction. It is hypothesized that the addictive characteristics of Adderall are due to the activation of the mesolimibic dopaminergic pathway, in which the amphetamine in the drug binds to the transporter of the neurotransmitter dopamine to prevent removal of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. By prolonging the presence of dopamine in the synapse, amphetamine produces the long-lasting side-effects of euphoria, pleasure, and concentration. In addition, the highly connected neural circuits in the central nervous system can transport dopamine from one part of the brain to another, resulting in the proliferation of the chemical signal.

Adderall abuse can also cause dangerous physiologic effects such as hypertension, seizures, and mydriasis (dilation of the pupil). Increase in blood pressure is thought to be caused by the continued release of norepinephrine. The constant stimulation of nerve receptors is the mechanism behind Adderall addiction. With continued use over time, a tolerance is developed to Adderall, as seen with other addictive drugs as well – the more frequently these drugs, including Adderall, are used, the greater the amount that is needed to supply a response. The reinforcement behavior produced by Adderall can eventually cause long-term dependence.

Research has found that under some circumstances, Adderall can induce psychosis in adolescents comparable to schizophrenia. Though the precise mechanism is not clear, it is possible that this effect is due to an increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release. The symptoms cleared in patients who withdrew from using Adderall. The chemical similarity between natural neurotransmitters in the body and Adderall increases both the likelihood and degree of abuse. Thus, until the risks of psycho-stimulants are understood in more detail, it is advisable to remain cautious about prescribing Adderall to those with ADHD.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive

 

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Neurotransmitters dysfunction and obesity

Neurotransmitters dysfunction

Neurotransmitters are the naturally occurring chemicals inside your body that transmit messages between nerve cells. In the brain alone there are 183 different neurotransmitters. Two major neurotransmitters are…..

Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters are naturally occurring chemicals that “transmit” electrical messages between nerve cells, called “neurons” hence the name neurotransmitters. They are produced in the body by amino acids with the help of vitamins and minerals. We get these amino acids, vitamins and minerals from the food we eat. However, if we are not getting enough of these or in an imbalanced ratio a deficiency occurs and over time can lead to the development of diseases and illnesses associated with low levels of neurotransmitters.

What diseases are associated with neurotransmitter dysfunction?

According to Neuro-Research a list of diseases or illnesses are caused by or associated with neurotransmitter dysfunction. Neurotransmitter dysfunction leads to obesity and the diseases resulting from obesity, as well as other diseases not associated with obesity. Causes of neurotransmitter dysfunction There are four known primary causes of neurotransmitter dysfunction. 1: Nutritional Deficiency 2: Prescription drugs 3: Damage to the neurons of the brain 4: Excess excretion of neurotransmitters by the kidneys

 Neurotransmitter dysfunction -Why is lab testing only used after starting amino acid therapy?

This is a common question. We are used to a medical community that runs tests first and then treats based on the test. However with neurotransmitters, hyper excretion is a common problem. Hyper excretion results when the kidneys are excreting excessive amounts of neurotransmitters so that the urinary values don’t match up with the systemic values. Once treatment starts with amino acids this problem doesn’t seem to occur. Therefore testing is NOT performed prior to supplementation with amino acids.

Neurotransmitter dysfunction -How many supplements are involved in treatment and what is each doing?

There are two different programs available for treatment. The first specifically treats neurotransmitter dysfunction resulting in the “conditions related to obesity and neurotransmitter deficiency” listed right. The second program treats neurotransmitter dysfunction as well as weight loss by incorporating an appetite suppressant in the formula. This will assist in controlling your appetite, however, calorie restriction is still necessary to accomplish long-term weight loss. This second program can also be used to treat symptoms associated with Parkinsonism. If only one neurotransmitter system is not functioning properly, why do I have to take supplements that affect both systems? The reason is simple, according to Neuro-Research’s extensive research, they have found that 5% of patients have only serotonin dysfunction, 5% of patients have only catecholamine dysfunction and 90% of patients are a mixture of both. Both systems must be functioning properly for the entire system to be healthy and free of neurotransmitter disease. After you have started the program we will monitor your symptoms and lab test results and adjust the supplements accordingly. So in the end you may take more of one supplement than another to achieve an appropriate “balance”. More about the Neurotransmitter Support Supplements available! Proteins, minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, and fats are the essential nutrients that make up your body. Proteins are the essential components of muscle tissue, organs, blood, enzymes, antibodies, and neurotransmitters in the brain. Your brain needs the proper nutrients every day in order to manufacture proper levels of the neurotransmitters that regulate your mood. Neurotransmitter Effects:

  1. Control the appetite center of the brain.
  2. Stimulates Corticotrophin Releasing Factor, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, & Cortisol.
  3. Regulate male and female sex hormone.
  4. Regulates sleep.
  5. Modulate mood and thought processes.
  6. Controls ability to focus, concentrate, and remember things.
  7. The Mind Body Connection.
  8. The chemistry of our bodies can alter, and be altered by our every thought and feeling. Our bodies and our minds are truly interconnected; the health of one depends on the health of the other.

There are many biochemical neurotransmitter imbalances that result in mental health symptoms such as:

  1. Adrenal dysfunction
  2. Blood sugar imbalance
  3. Food and Chemical allergy
  4. Heavy Metal Toxicity
  5. Hormone imbalance
  6. Nutritional Deficiency
  7. Serotonin/Dopamine/Noradrenalin imbalance
  8. Stimulant and drug intoxication
  9. Under or overactive thyroid

  Neurotransmitter Imbalances Disrupted communication between the brain and the body can have serious effects to one’s health both physically and mentally. Depression, anxiety and other mood disorders are thought to be directly related to imbalances with neurotransmitters. The four major neurotransmitters that regulate mood are Serotonin, Dopamine, GABA and Norepinephrine.

Neurotransmitter dysfunction -The Inhibitory System

Neurotransmitters dysfunction

Neurotransmitter system dysfunction may contribute to the borderline personality disorder traits of impulsive aggression and affective instability

This is the brains braking system, it prevents the signal from continuing. The inhibitory system slows things down. Serotonin and GABA are examples of inhibitory neurotransmitters. GABA (Gamma amino butyric acid) GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It helps the neurons recover after transmission, reduces anxiety and stress. It regulates norepinephrine, adrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin; it is a significant mood modulator. Serotonin imbalance This is one of the most common contributors to mood problems. Some feel it is a virtual epidemic in the United States. Serotonin is key to our feelings of happiness and very important for our emotions because it helps defend against both anxiety and depression. You may have a shortage of serotonin if you have a sad depressed mood, anxiety, panic attacks, low energy, migraines, sleeping problems, obsession or compulsions, feel tense and irritable, crave sweets, and have a reduced interest in sex. Additionally, your hormones and Estrogen levels can affect serotonin levels and this may explain why some women have pre-menstrual and menopausal mood problems. Moreover, daily stress can greatly reduce your serotonin supplies. The Excitatory Neurotransmitter System This can be related to your car’s accelerator. It allows the signal to go. When the excitatory neurotransmitter system is in drive your system gets all raved up for action. Without a functioning inhibitory system to put on the brakes, things (like your mood) can get out of control. Among other things, the following should be in place to restore neurotransmitters in attempt to achieve weight loss.   Epinephrine It’s also known as adrenaline is a neurotransmitter and hormone essential to metabolism. It regulates attention, mental focus, arousal, and cognition. It also inhibits insulin excretion and raises the amounts of fatty acids in the blood. Epinephrine is made from norepinephrine and is released from the adrenal glands. Low levels have been can result in fatigue, lack of focus, and difficulty losing weight. High levels have been linked to sleep problems, anxiety and ADHD.   Dopamine It’s responsible for motivation, interest, and drive. It is associated with positive stress states such as being in love, exercising, listening to music, and sex. When we don’t have enough of it we don’t feel alive, we have difficulty initiating or completing tasks, poor concentration, no energy, and lack of motivation. Dopamine also is involved in muscle control and function. Low Dopamine levels can drive us to use drugs (self-medicate), alcohol, smoke cigarettes, gamble, and/or overeat. High dopamine has been observed in patients with poor GI function, autism, mood swings, psychosis, and children with attention disorders. Glutamate It’s the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is required for learning and memory. Low levels can lead to tiredness and poor brain activity. Increased levels of glutamate can cause death to the neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Dysfunction in glutamate levels are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Tourette’s. High levels also contribute to Depression, OCD, and Autism. Neurotransmitter Levels Neurotransmitter levels can now be determined by a simple and convenient urine test collected at home. Knowing your neurotransmitter levels can help you correct a problem today or prevent problems from occurring in the future.

Neurotransmitters dysfunction and obesity-Exposition

 

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