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Dopamine reward master and drug seeking basics

Dopamine reward master

Dopamine reward master and drug seeking basics. The neurotransmission and substance abuse needs immediate treatment

Dopamine reward master and drug seeking basics: Mesolimbic pathway

While we were looking at the dopamine influence in substance abuse, it became quite clear that when the brain’s reward center is activated, it releases dopamine which then creates a pleasing, enjoyable sensation primarily to motivate us into repeating these behaviors which are necessary for our survival. The reason why this is happening is because dopamine has rewarded us with a pleasurable feeling. That in itself is a testimony that dopamine reward master is the fueling the human survival. With that understanding of the purpose and functioning of the brains reward system. It would be important that we interrogate its (dopamine reward master) functions a little bit further.

Dopamine reward master and drug seeking basics: Ventral tegmental area (VTA)

The circuit most associated with pleasure and reward is the mesolimbic pathway which is located in the brainstem. The objective of this area of the brain is primarily concerned with basic survival. Within the mesolimbic pathway is an area called the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA projects to the nucleus accumbens (thought to be the reward center). The neurotransmitter most commonly linked with the mesolimbic system is dopamine. Many people consider dopamine to be the driving force behind the human pursuit of pleasure. The release of dopamine is a pleasurable sensation. The release of dopamine motivates us to repeat behaviors or activities that prompted this release. This system’s purpose was to promote survival by rewarding life sustaining behaviors such eating and procreation.

Dopamine reward master and drug seeking basics: Nucleus accumbens

All addictive drugs and activities release varying amounts of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens with stimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine releasing the most. However when it comes to drugs like alcohol or heroin, the brain’s own opiate system (endorphins) also gets involved. Doctor Akoury MD and founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center reiterates that even though different forms of addictions have different effects in the nucleus accumbens, they share one common denominator, that is, they all activate the reward system which in turn motivates us to repeat those behaviors, even though they may be harmful. Besides what we have discussed about the concepts of reward, pleasure, and craving together, it is however very important to appreciate that there is a distinction between pleasure-seeking and drug seeking. Note that pleasure-seeking is all about the pleasurable, rewarding aspect of addiction while drug-seeking refer to the craving aspect of addiction. Dopamine may be more involved in drug-seeking (craving) component of addiction. The opiate (endorphin), GABA, or glutamatergic systems may be more involved in pleasure-seeking aspect of addiction too.

Finally pleasure-seeking and drug-seeking (cravings) are inter-related, yet distinct. Research has established that natural rewards (food, water, sex) typically lessen their influence on the reward system over time. As a behavior occurs more often, dopamine levels tend to decrease in the process. Psychologists call this habituation. This makes sense. Once you’ve eaten enough food, you don’t need to be rewarded for eating more food. Then you would be eating too much, or too much of one type of food. Therefore everyone needs to take heed of keeping the brain free from all attacks be it from substances or otherwise. Talking to the experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury should be your starting point. Call us today to schedule that very important appointment today for the commencement of your journey to full recovery from your addiction.

Dopamine reward master and drug seeking basics: Mesolimbic pathway

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The best pathways of deregistering drug addiction

 

The best pathways of deregistering drug addiction: Possessing a drug free body system

The best pathways of deregistering drug addiction

The best pathways of deregistering drug addiction from our societies will depend on the societal attitude change. when this happens we can begin by eliminating these chronic elements one after the other.

Talking of the best pathways of deregistering drug addiction we are reminded of our introduction part of this discussion where we handle the mechanisms of dealing with drug addiction and the smart ways of fighting the same. In the previous article doctor Dalal Akoury helped us unlock the foundations of drug addiction and we now want to further that discussion progressively by looking at some of the best pathways of deregistering drug addiction from our systems and societies. Experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury have been working round the clock in trying to eliminate the scourge of addiction with lots of successes in the past decades and we are not about to stop because the escalation of drug addiction is ever on the rise thereby putting of the likeminded people to raise to the challenge. Rom where we left in the previous article, the following are some of the best pathways of deregistering drug addiction from our lives.

The best pathways of deregistering drug addiction: Relieving stress without drugs

Stress is one of the most common triggers of substance abuse and for sure record available from several statistics indicates that most of drug addicts could have not become addicted to the substances they are abusing if the element of stress was address promptly. According to doctor Akoury conditions like stress, loneliness, frustration, anger, shame, anxiety, and hopelessness are inevitable in life and in one way or another while still on this planet earth we will come across them. The danger is they will remain in your life even when you’re no longer using drugs to cover them up. It therefore means that until we address them decisively and professionally the problems that are associated with drug addiction will not be settled effectively.

It is interesting to note that in many instances drug abuse will most likely shoots up from misguided attempts to manage stress. Many people turn to alcohol or recreational drugs to unwind and relax after a stressful day, or to cover up painful memories and emotions that cause us to feel stressed and out of balance. Even though this is the common practice by many, there are better and healthier ways of keeping your stress level in check. From the professionals’ point of view, doctor Akoury registers that practicing activities like taking part in healthy exercises, meditation, using sensory strategies to relax, practicing simple breathing exercises and challenging self-defeating thoughts are very essential in eliminating stress that is very key in propagating drug addiction in most of our cultures.

The best pathways of de-registering drug addiction: Strategies for relieving stress quickly without drugs

Whenever we are stressed, it is very normal for people in such state of mind to feel that doing drugs is the only way and possibly the best in handling unpleasant feelings. If this is how you are feeling, we want to help you out of that feeling because it is not true and will not be anytime soon. We appreciate that stress is inevitable in this point of time, but it is important to note that even in such difficult and stressful situations, you can still learn to get through those difficulties without falling back on your addiction. Doctor Akoury is very categorical that different quick stress relief strategies work better for some people than others because we all respond to stress differently. The secret is to find the one that works best for you, and helps you calm down when you’re feeling stressed and overwhelmed. Remember that when you’re confident in your ability to quickly de-stress, facing strong feelings isn’t as intimidating or overwhelming and the following can be very helpful in the process:

  • Indulgence in physical activities like exercise is very important as it releases endorphins, relieves stress, and promotes emotional well-being. Therefore try running in place, jumping rope, or walking around the block and you will experience the difference.
  • Step outside and savor the warm sun and fresh air. Enjoy a beautiful view or landscape. This may sound meaningless to many but it is very important and has worked for many as one of the best pathways of deregistering drug addiction.
  • For those who may not be active enough to take part in vigorous exercises, yoga and meditation will be a better option for excellent ways to bust stress and find balance.
  • Many people often think that when exercise in mentioned then it has to fall in tight schedule. That is not really the case remember that even play with your dog or cat, enjoying the relaxing touch of your pet’s fur is a good way of dispensing out stress.
  • Put on some calming music and take time to listen to the soothing tune.
  • Breathe in the scent of fresh flowers or coffee beans, or savor a scent that reminds you of a favorite vacation, such as sunscreen or a seashell.
  • Close your eyes and picture a peaceful place, such as a sandy beach. Or think of a fond memory, such as your child’s first steps or time spent with friends.
  • Make yourself a steaming cup of tea and take time to enjoy it.
  • Look at favorite family photos it will rejuvenate your life and send off stress packing.
  • Give yourself a neck or shoulder massage and soak in a hot bath or shower. Doing this will deliver calmness and comfort that will send off any element of stress packing off your life.

Finally in the quest of finding the best pathways of de-registering drug addiction that will make you have a drug free body system, there will be some obstacles along the way which you must be very ready to face and address promptly. Like we had mentioned before that stress is one of the key triggers of drug addiction, it is important to appreciate that the moment stress sets in the craving for drugs will be overwhelmingly high and demanding. This is the time when many people makes serious mistakes and fall into serious addiction that they cannot come out of easily. Therefore before you let things get out of hand, it is very crucial that you seek for professional help immediately from the trusted experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center. This is the best thing you can do for yourself and the sooner you schedule for that appointment with doctor Dalal Akoury the better for you and your loved ones. So don’t make any hesitation and call today for the commencement of your treatment immediately.

The best pathways of de-registering drug addiction: Possessing a drug free body system

 

 

 

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Drug seeking and cravings to the brain

Drug seeking and cravings to the brain: Addictions effect on the brain’s reward system

Drug seeking and cravings to the brain

Drug seeking and cravings to the brain. Ideally drugs are a serious threat to your health and the brain is one of the organs affected the most.

Drug seeking and craving to the brain is very interesting more so when we consider how the brain functions. It is true that the brain has evolved over time in a way that ensures human survival. And in fact our brain’s reward system is part of that survival system. In many instances we often experience an urgent need for food whenever we are starving and generally have a powerful desire for sex too. According to doctor Dalal Akoury MD and founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center, the brain’s reward system rewards food and sex because they ensure our survival. Unfortunately, drugs of abuse operate within these reward systems which leads people to experience an urgent need or powerful desire for drugs or addictive activities.

The brain’s reward system has ensured our species survival. You may have not known but food, water, and sex are some of the elements that activate the reward system. Therefore when the brain’s reward center is activated, it releases dopamine. Dopamine then creates a pleasing, enjoyable sensation which then motivates us into repeating these behaviors which are necessary for our survival. The reason why this is happening is because dopamine has rewarded us with a pleasurable feeling. Doctor Akoury recommends that from an evolutionary standpoint of view, it is very helpful to have a reward system that works. Like for instance, imagine that there is very little food and you’re wandering about looking for food. When you finally find something to eat, this triggers your reward system. This pleasing feeling (dopamine “reward”) will become associated with whatever behavior that led you to that food. This causes you to want to repeat that behavior. Moreover, the reward system is closely tied to emotional and subjective memories. If you were successful and found food in a particular place for instance, in the future you will want to look for food in the same location. This reward system increases the likelihood that you will be successful in finding food there the next time. This is because your brain chemicals are rewarding you with a pleasing sensation. It also helps you to remember how and where this pleasant feeling occurred.

Drug seeking and cravings to the brain: The negative dopamine reward sensation

It will come to you as a surprise that the element that motives your survival is unfortunately the very same reward system that ensures your survival also rewards drug use. Doctor Akoury says that all addictive substances and activities will trigger the release of dopamine which rewards us with a pleasant sensation thereby succeeding in motivating us to continuously indulge in these harmful behaviors. It is nowadays common knowledge that peoples with addiction problems will all it takes to get their drug of choice and in the same way, they continue with their addiction despite the harm it causes to themselves or their loved ones. It is therefore very important to note that all these characteristic of addictive behaviors arise from the brain’s pleasure and rewards centers. Therefore seeking for lasting solutions becomes a must to do for all victims. This may not be a very popular thing owing to the addictiveness of some of these drugs, but nonetheless it is the best option if you want to have a healthy life that is free from all sorts of addiction. You can schedule for an appointment with doctor Dalal Akoury for the commencement of your journey to recovery.

Drug seeking and cravings to the brain: Mesolimbic pathway

We now have a basic understanding of the purpose and functioning of the brain’s reward system. Let’s interrogate it a little bit further. The circuit most associated with pleasure and reward is the mesolimbic pathway which is located in the brainstem. The objective of this area of the brain is primarily concerned with basic survival. Within the mesolimbic pathway is an area called the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA projects to the nucleus accumbens (thought to be the reward center). The neurotransmitter most commonly linked with the mesolimbic system is dopamine. Many people consider dopamine to be the driving force behind the human pursuit of pleasure. The release of dopamine is a pleasurable sensation. The release of dopamine motivates us to repeat behaviors or activities that prompted this release. This system’s purpose was to promote survival by rewarding life sustaining behaviors such eating and procreation.

All addictive drugs and activities release varying amounts of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens with stimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine releasing the most. However when it comes to drugs like alcohol or heroin, the brain’s own opiate system (endorphins) also gets involved. Doctor Akoury further says that even though different forms of addictions have different effects in the nucleus accumbens, they share one common denominator that they all activate the reward system which in turn motivates us to repeat those behaviors, even though they may be harmful. Besides what we have discussed about the concepts of reward, pleasure, and craving together, it is however very important to appreciate that there is a distinction between pleasure-seeking and drug seeking. Note that pleasure-seeking is all about the pleasurable, rewarding aspect of addiction while drug-seeking refer to the craving aspect of addiction. Dopamine may be more involved in drug-seeking (craving) component of addiction. The opiate (endorphin), GABA, or glutamatergic systems may be more involved in pleasure-seeking aspect of addiction too.

Pleasure-seeking and drug-seeking (cravings) are inter-related, yet distinct. Research has established that natural rewards (food, water, sex) typically lessen their influence on the reward system over time. As a behavior occurs more often, dopamine levels tend to decrease in the process. Psychologists call this habituation. This makes sense. Once you’ve eaten enough food, you don’t need to be rewarded for eating more food. Then you would be eating too much, or too much of one type of food. Therefore everyone needs to take heed of keeping the brain free from all attacks be it from substances or otherwise. Talking to the experts at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury should be your starting point. Call and make that appointment today for the commencement of your journey to full recovery from your addiction.

Drug seeking and cravings to the brain: Addictions effect on the brain’s reward system

 

 

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Adipose Derived Stem Cells and Brain Regenerative Addiction

Adipose Derived Stem Cells for Brain Regenerative Addiction

Addiction to drugs is known for their adverse health effects. After using drugs for a long time a person’s health become deteriorated leading to myriads of complications. The part of the body that is the most adversely affected is the brain. The brain and the entire nervous system are subjected to lots of damage after a long use of drugs of abuse. The brain works together with the neurotransmitters to pass messages in order to initiate certain responses but after along use of drugs of abuse the coordination between them becomes altered. Neurotransmitters are very crucial in the nervous system. They are the chemicals that transmit messages from one nerve cell to another. Nerve cells are known as neurons. The nerve impulse travels from the first nerve cell through the axon, a single smooth body arising from the nerve cell to the axon terminal and the synaptic knobs. Each synaptic knob communicates with a dendrite or cell body of another neuron, and the synaptic knobs contain neurovesicles that store and release neurotransmitters. The synapse lies between the synaptic knob and the next cell. For the impulse to continue traveling across the synapse to reach the next cell, the synaptic knobs release the neurotransmitter into that space, and the next nerve cell is stimulated to pick up the impulse and continue it. An interference with the neurotransmitters can adversely affect the flow of message within the nervous system. After prolonged use of drugs they interfere with the harmonious flow of information from the brain to the rest of the body maiming its normal functions. There are myriads of neurotransmitters that are affected by prolonged use of drugs of pleasure.

Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Some of the neurotransmitters that are adversely affected during addiction

Dopamine is one of the neurotransmitters that are highly targeted by drugs of pleasure. Due to the ‘high’ feelings it is associated with, some people have called it the ‘bliss neurotransmitter’. It is responsible for good feeling, the euphoric feelings that drug addicts seek from various drugs of abuse. Dopamine has great influence on well-being, alertness, learning, creativity, attention and concentration. Levels of dopamine should be optimal in the brain since when the level of dopamine is low it can leave us craving food, sex or stimulation. When the dopamine level is too high it can cause addictive behaviors. It has been observed that patients who are put on medications to boost dopamine level especially the Parkinson’s patient, they will form an addictive behavior like gambling when the levels of dopamine shoots beyond the optimal level. Dopamine boosts the feelings of pleasure but when the levels are too high it may result in Paranoia or a suspicious personality. Dopamine is also released when there is high stress. Therefore the level of dopamine should be regulated to ensure sound health. This is where the functions of inhibitory neurotransmitters set in, however with influence of drugs this coordination between excitatory neurotransmitters and inhibitory neurotransmitters is maimed.

Some drugs of pleasure contain nicotine which influences mood, cognition, and body function by binding to and activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located on neurons in the brain. When activated by either nicotine or the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the nAChR opens a channel that allows ions to pass through the neuron’s membrane from the exterior to the interior of the cell and trigger changes that activate the cell. When you take tobacco or other drug with nicotine the nicotine will have interactions with nAChRs and therefore any nicotine dependence treatment should focus on altering these interactions.

Nicotine produces rewarding effects by interacting with nAChRs on neurons in the brain’s mesolimbic reward system. This system comprises dopaminergic neurons that originate in the ventral tegmental area often shortened as VTA and release the neurotransmitter dopamine in regions involved in information processing, memory, and emotions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Increases in dopamine levels within the mesolimbic system give rise to rewarding effects. Nicotine directly enhances dopamine levels in the mesolimbic system by interacting with nAChRs on the dopaminergic neurons and causing them to release more of the neurotransmitter. Nicotine also modulates dopamine release indirectly by binding to nAChRs located on excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons in the ventral tegmental area. These glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons originate from a number of brain areas, such as the NAc, hippocampus, PFC, amygdala, ventral pallidum, and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, and regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons.

Adipose Derived Stem Cells

Using Adipose derived stem cells to restore the health of the brain

As explained above the brain chemistry is adversely altered after prolonged use of drugs of abuse and these calls for restoration and regeneration of the brain during addiction treatment. Today researchers have found that adipose derived stem cells can be used in regenerating and restoring the neurotransmitters that are affected during drug addiction. The stem cells can be used to create healthy cells in situations where drugs have damaged cells. This can be done by taking healthy stem cells and transplanting them into the nervous system through an IV. Through this doctors can cause changes in brain and body chemical compositions that offer a key to healing problems such as alcoholism and drug addiction. The healthy stem cells are capable of changing the chemical composition of our brains and how the brain works. When healthy stem cells are transplanted into the damaged brain area. In the case of drugs; the area of the brain that controls impulses and chemical reactions to substances they begin to rebuild that area without the previous cellular dysfunction. This means that brain functions that facilitate addiction will be done with.  Stem cells are the best remedy as they are new and have no mutations that therefore restore the affected areas to equilibrium and facilitating whole-body healing of the addict.

Here at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center we are committed to availing the best integrative approaches to treatment of diseases. We advocate for dietary as well as natural healing to diseases wherever possible. Visit as at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina where Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) will be of help.

Adipose Derived Stem Cells for Brain Regenerative Addiction

 

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Dopamine and Norepinephrine Contributing to Addiction?

Dopamine and Norepinephrine and Their Contribution to Addiction

Dopamine and norepinephrine are very crucial neurotransmitters whose functions can never be underestimated. These are some of the most crucial neurotransmitters in the body. In particular, dopamine has very many functions in the body but to many people it is famous for its good feeling effects that it is always identified with but this should not be the case as it has functions beyond the mesolimbic pathway. In the brain dopamine plays such roles as: It plays a big role in starting movement, and the destruction of dopamine neurons in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra is what produces the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine is involved in the frontal cortex in executive functions like attention and feelings among others. In the rest of the body, dopamine is involved in nausea, in kidney function, and in heart function. Though only relevant to most people when it comes to such aspects as motivation, addiction, attention or lust, dopamine is a crucial neurotransmitter that also does vital functions in different pathways. Therefore dopamine should not only be limited to the mesolimbic pathway. A pathway which starts with cells in the ventral tegmental area, buried deep in the middle of the brain, which send their projections out to places like the nucleus accumbens and the cortex.  the levels of dopamine is naturally controlled by the brain, for example when a person engages  in pleasurable activities the brain will increase the level of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, however during addiction the dopamine signaling in this area is changed. For any drug to have any pleasurable feeling to the user then the level of dopamine must be increased and this is what causes euphoric feelings that drug users will do anything to achieve.

Dopamine

Dopamine depletion and cocaine addiction

Despite one of the most dangerous drugs of pleasure, cocaine has remained to be one of the drugs that are highly abused worldwide. Cocaine works in such a way that it targets the dopamine which is a neurotransmitter related with euphoric feelings. When taken cocaine will cause a surge of dopamine extracellular in limbic areas, specifically, nucleus accumbens it is this surge that causes euphoric effects cocaine is known for. It is the euphoric properties of cocaine that lead to the development of chronic abuse, and appear to involve the acute activation of central dopamine neuronal systems. Dopamine plays a key role in reward system and stimulation behavior. However, when a person uses cocaine for a long time his neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine alterations will eventually occur. Dopamine depletion is hypothesized to result from overstimulation of these neurons and excessive synaptic metabolism of the neurotransmitter. It is this depletion of dopamine that may underlie dysphoric aspects of cocaine abstinence, and cocaine cravings.  With many research findings on cocaine relations with dopamine, it is clear that cocaine addiction stems from the depletion of synaptic dopamine in the mesolimbic dopamine reward system, leading to a dysphoric withdrawal state that drives cocaine seeking to restore dopamine to normal, drug-dependence level.

After using cocaine for a long time, your brain will be conditioned to use cocaine in order to raise cocaine to the required levels and this result in addicted brain that can’t function without taking cocaine. At this stage it will be hard for an addict to quit using this drug as every time you try to quit all the withdrawal symptoms will set in thereby causing addiction and dependence thereafter. These cravings contribute not only to addiction but to relapse after a hard-won sobriety especially when the addict encounters triggers.

Norepinephrine and Drug Addiction

Norepinephrine is a very vital neurotransmitter in the brain that is also one of the most abundant in the brain. It is important for such roles as selective attention, general arousal, and stress reactions in challenging environments. Norepinephrine has been implicated by several studies as a key mediator of drug reward for three primary reasons. First, the noradrenergic pathways support intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and modulate drug-induced changes in ICSS threshold. Secondly, the biochemical activity of psychostimulant drugs includes blockade of Norepinephrine reuptake and enhancement of Norepinephrine release and thirdly, compounds that interfere with Norepinephrine synthesis or signaling influence drug self-administration. The idea that drugs of abuse act via the endogenous reward systems in the brain first arose when psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine have been found to alter support intracranial self-stimulation thresholds. One interpretation of these results was that Norepinephrine mediates the effect of psychostimulants on support intracranial self-stimulation, because these drugs cause Norepinephrine release, block Norepinephrine reuptake or do both.

Dopamine

In a 1970s research done by Davis WM and Smith SG in a study titled: Catecholaminergic mechanisms of reinforcement: direct assessment by drug-self-administration, it was found that catecholamines were important in the mediation of opiate self-administration. in this research, a series of experiments showed that depletion of Norepinephrine and dopamine with amphetamine , a drug which is known to inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase prevents or attenuates the self-administration of morphine in rodents and in nonhuman primates as was shown earlier by Pozuelo and Kerr in 1972.

Finally, Drug addiction is a vice that should be fought by all means that is why we at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center are committed to availing help to addicts and offering them a place to call home. We offer NER Treatment and Amino acid therapy that are the most effective approaches to addiction treatment and recovery. You call on Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) today and begin your journey to victory against addiction.

Dopamine and Norepinephrine and Their Roles in Causing Addiction

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