Tag Archives: Ritalin

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Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin

Understanding Cocaine substance

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin. Cocaine addictive stimulant consequences if not address can cause serious damages

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin begins by first appreciating their roles into the brain. These drugs can be very addictive if taken in higher doses. In fact Ritalin works by increasing the dopamine output in the brain, which helps to improve concentration. Dopamine is also the neurotransmitter very much associated with reward and pleasure in the brain, and for this reason when Ritalin is taken in higher doses than the recommended amounts it can result in euphoria. Anything that causes a psychotropic reaction (a high) can result in a psychological addiction, and Ritalin is no different. Patients with ADHD who require Ritalin therapy are given the medication in gradually increasing dosages to slowly and steadily build up base levels of dopamine in the brain, and when this process occurs over time and in a controlled manner, there is no intoxication, and there is no risk of addiction.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Wrong usage of clinical medications

When people take the medication for non-clinical reasons, they tend to take a higher dosage, do get high, and with prolonged abuse do find themselves addicted. Adults and children taking the medication for a legitimate medical condition, and following a doctor’s recommendations for dosage amounts and frequency, have little to worry about. Adults prescribed Ritalin sometimes do experiment with higher doses, and there have been thousands of cases where parents may also take and abuse their children’s medications. Although not as potent as a strict amphetamine, the abuse of Ritalin can be quite pleasurable, and is also associated positively with weight loss, and as such can be quite tempting.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Ritalin withdrawal symptoms

Doctor Dalal Akoury says that once a person becomes addicted to Ritalin, when they try to stop taking the drug, they will experience a syndrome of withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms of withdrawal include: Tiredness, anxiety, depression, lethargy, hunger, cravings and many other symptoms.

The withdrawal and detox off of Ritalin presents very similarly to other psycho stimulants like crystal meth and cocaine, and the symptoms are predominantly internal and psychological in nature. Detox can best be accomplished in a facility away from access to the drug, and with the prescription of appropriate psychiatric medications that can take the edge off the depression and anxiety.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Adderall

Adderall is commonly prescribed to patients who have difficulty controlling their actions, maintaining focus, or staying awake. It contains the active ingredients dextro-amphetamine and levo-amphetamine, both of which are psycho-stimulant amphetamine molecules. Adderall was first introduced into the public in 1996 as an instant-release (IR) drug by Shire Pharmaceuticals. In 2006, a new version, Adderall extended release (XR), was made available as well. While the instant-release drug requires 3 hours to reach its maximum plasma concentration after consumption, the extended release version takes up to 7 hours to do so. Some of the known side effects of Adderall include insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, and hallucination. Adderall has been found to be addictive and dangerous to the health of some patients. Several withdrawal symptoms include panic attacks, seizure, fatigue, and depression. You can chose today to be free from all these problems by scheduling for an appointment with doctor Dalal Akoury for more professional advice.

Understanding Cocaine substance and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive

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Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive

mesolimbic dopamine system

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin is very crucial if we are to defeat all the elements of addiction that are associated with it.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin begins by first appreciating their roles into the brain. These drugs can be very addictive if taken in higher doses. In fact Ritalin works by increasing the dopamine output in the brain, which helps to improve concentration. Dopamine is also the neurotransmitter very much associated with reward and pleasure in the brain, and for this reason when Ritalin is taken in higher doses than the recommended amounts it can result in euphoria. Anything that causes a psychotropic reaction (a high) can result in a psychological addiction, and Ritalin is no different. Patients with ADHD who require Ritalin therapy are given the medication in gradually increasing dosages to slowly and steadily build up base levels of dopamine in the brain, and when this process occurs over time and in a controlled manner, there is no intoxication, and there is no risk of addiction.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Addictive if abused

When people take the medication for non-clinical reasons, they tend to take a higher dosage, do get high, and with prolonged abuse do find themselves addicted. Adults and children taking the medication for a legitimate medical condition, and following a doctor’s recommendations for dosage amounts and frequency, have little to worry about. Adults prescribed Ritalin sometimes do experiment with higher doses, and there have been thousands of cases where parents may also take and abuse their children’s medications. Although not as potent as a strict amphetamine, the abuse of Ritalin can be quite pleasurable, and is also associated positively with weight loss, and as such can be quite tempting.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Ritalin withdrawal symptoms

Doctor Dalal Akoury says that once a person becomes addicted to Ritalin, when they try to stop taking the drug, they will experience a syndrome of withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms of withdrawal include: Tiredness, anxiety, depression, lethargy, hunger, cravings and many other symptoms.

The withdrawal and detox off of Ritalin presents very similarly to other psycho stimulants like crystal meth and cocaine, and the symptoms are predominantly internal and psychological in nature. Detox can best be accomplished in a facility away from access to the drug, and with the prescription of appropriate psychiatric medications that can take the edge off the depression and anxiety.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Adderall

Adderall is commonly prescribed to patients who have difficulty controlling their actions, maintaining focus, or staying awake. It contains the active ingredients dextro-amphetamine and levo-amphetamine, both of which are psycho-stimulant amphetamine molecules. Adderall was first introduced into the public in 1996 as an instant-release (IR) drug by Shire Pharmaceuticals. In 2006, a new version, Adderall extended release (XR), was made available as well. While the instant-release drug requires 3 hours to reach its maximum plasma concentration after consumption, the extended release version takes up to 7 hours to do so. Some of the known side effects of Adderall include insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea, and hallucination. Adderall has been found to be addictive and dangerous to the health of some patients. Several withdrawal symptoms include panic attacks, seizure, fatigue

, and depression.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: The Chemistry and Mechanisms behind Adderall

The structure and action of Adderall resembles that of recreational drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (also known as ecstacy). Adderall is a phenylalkylamine, consisting of a phenyl ring and nitrogen group. The molecular resemblance of Adderall to catecholamine neurotransmitters underlies the similarities in physiological function between Adderall and these natural neurotransmitters.

The amphetamines in Adderall can bind to receptors that are normally activated by specific catecholamines produced by different glands in the body (including the hypothalamus and adrenal medulla). Amphetamine can also result in the release of more neurotransmitters that can activate sensory regions throughout the nervous system. When these psycho-stimulants activate receptors in the brain, the emotional response consists of euphoria, insomnia, increased alertness, and, sometimes, anxiety or psychosis. Peripherally, the binding of amphetamine compounds to catecholamine receptors can result in a physical response that may include the vasoconstriction of blood vessels, tachycardia, and hypertension.

In addition to stimulating the release of catecholamines, the amphetamines in Adderall also inhibit the function of monoamine transporters, which function in the re-uptake and recycling of catecholamine neurotransmitters in order to terminate the neural signal by removing the neurotransmitters from the synapse. In effect, Adderall stimulates sensory systems by maintaining the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. Adderall also partakes in a “reverse-transport” or efflux process in which the amphetamines are transported from the synapse through the transporters into the presynaptic neurons and the catecholamines are simultaneously transported from the presynaptic neurons through the transporter into the synapse. This leads to an increased concentration of neurotransmitters in the synapse, allowing them to trigger receptors and activate the neuropsychological effects mentioned above. Finally, amphetamine and its analogs also enhance the synaptic neurotransmitter concentration by acting as competitive inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters. In all these if you want to be safe, it is necessary that you keep in constant consultation with the experts from AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center under the able leadership of doctor Dalal Akoury and you will not be caught an aware.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Potential for Abuse

Adderall has high risk for dependence and addiction. It is hypothesized that the addictive characteristics of Adderall are due to the activation of the mesolimibic dopaminergic pathway, in which the amphetamine in the drug binds to the transporter of the neurotransmitter dopamine to prevent removal of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. By prolonging the presence of dopamine in the synapse, amphetamine produces the long-lasting side-effects of euphoria, pleasure, and concentration. In addition, the highly connected neural circuits in the central nervous system can transport dopamine from one part of the brain to another, resulting in the proliferation of the chemical signal.

Adderall abuse can also cause dangerous physiologic effects such as hypertension, seizures, and mydriasis (dilation of the pupil). Increase in blood pressure is thought to be caused by the continued release of norepinephrine. The constant stimulation of nerve receptors is the mechanism behind Adderall addiction. With continued use over time, a tolerance is developed to Adderall, as seen with other addictive drugs as well – the more frequently these drugs, including Adderall, are used, the greater the amount that is needed to supply a response. The reinforcement behavior produced by Adderall can eventually cause long-term dependence.

Research has found that under some circumstances, Adderall can induce psychosis in adolescents comparable to schizophrenia. Though the precise mechanism is not clear, it is possible that this effect is due to an increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release. The symptoms cleared in patients who withdrew from using Adderall. The chemical similarity between natural neurotransmitters in the body and Adderall increases both the likelihood and degree of abuse. Thus, until the risks of psycho-stimulants are understood in more detail, it is advisable to remain cautious about prescribing Adderall to those with ADHD.

Understanding the substance Cocaine and Adderall Ritalin: Why Ritalin can be addictive

 

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Ritalin Addiction and Abuse

Ritalin Addiction and Abuse-Withdrawal and Treatment

Ritalin addiction

Ritalin addiction affects the brain and can be very devastating.

Ritalin is a Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulant psychoactive drug which is generically known as methylphenidate. Stimulant psychoactive drugs hasten or speed up the brain and central nervous system activity; producing general effects of increased alertness, heightened senses, surges in energy etc. Ritalin is used to treat attention deficit disorders, attention deficit hyperactive disorder and narcolepsy (a strong desire to stay asleep which is not normal).

Other psychoactive drugs

Psychoactive drugs are those chemicals which the capability to influence and interfere with the normal functionalities of the central nerve system (CNS) and the brain. This interference comes in two different ways:

  • Drugs which hasten or speed up the functioning of CNS and brain are called stimulants and some of them may include drugs like Ritalin, crack cocaine, amphetamine, and crystal meth etc.
  • Drugs that slow the CNS and brain are called stimulants and in this group are opioids and opiates (Hydrocodone, buprenorphine, Opana, Demerol and Tramadol etc.) and alcohol.

The mechanism that these drugs use in functioning with the body is attaching to the receptacles or inducing production of endorphins which attach to brain and CNS receptacles to alter or inhibit successful signal transmission from other body organs to the brain and vice versa. This slows the body, generally reducing heart rate and in essence blood pressure, respiration and breathing etc.

The other category of psychoactive drugs are the hallucinogens/psychedelics this category tends to rearrange ones thinking, in other words they distort thinking completely, falsifying the person’s sense of pleasure, peace, or even threat etc., when realistically this is not the real situation happening. The drugs which fall in this category may include marijuana, PCP and MDMA these substances normally exhibit some traits and similarities of this category such as hallucinations, mood swings among many others.

Ritalin use

Ritalin is used in the body to offer functions like:

  • Attention deficit disorder patients lack the swiftness of mind and body to act and respond to stimuli in time.
  • They can be said to be slow and the presence of Ritalin boosts their energy, increases their sensory perception, self-awareness and alertness, which make them normal-like.
  • Narcolepsy on the other hand, being an unending sleepiness, is treated with Ritalin since in its working mechanism the drug reduces this sleep tendency and may even cause insomnia which is lack of sleep or sleep disturbances.
  • Like any other drug Ritalin is also prone to abuse, it is sometimes taken against prescription for leisure.
  • Those who seek leisure from Ritalin abuse it by taking more of it and in shorter frequencies to maximize its effects in the body and mind.
  • They might also use the drug together with other drugs that stimulate the brain, or drugs that make the effects of Ritalin take longer to wear off.
  • Abuse comprises not only the stated points above but also taking the drug when the body is already overactive, which makes the presence of the drug make automatic processes such as breathing, respiration, heart rate and blood pressure blow out of proportion.

Abuse

  • Like any other drug Ritalin is also prone to abuse, it is sometimes taken against prescription for leisure.
  • Those who seek leisure from Ritalin abuse it by taking more of it and in shorter frequencies to maximize its effects in the body and mind.
  • They might also use the drug together with other drugs that stimulate the brain, or drugs that make the effects of Ritalin take longer to wear off.
  • Abuse comprises not only the stated points above but also taking the drug when the body is already overactive, which makes the presence of the drug make automatic processes such as breathing, respiration, heart rate and blood pressure blow out of proportion.
Effects of Ritalin on the body and mind

As a stimulant Ritalin has various effects on the body and the mind of its users. These effects may be positive or negative depending on the use and they include:

  • Increased alertness and ability to focus
  • Energy surges
  • Numbing of pain
  • A boost in self-awareness and self esteem
  • Hastened automatic processes in the body, such as heart rate, breathing and respiration rates etc.
  • Sweating induced by a rise in body temperature
  • Grandiosity and invincibility
  • Heightened senses
  • Loss of appetite
  • Headaches
  • Insomnia
Side effects
  • Depression
  • An unending craving for the drug
  • Hypertension: due to increased heart rate
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Hyperthermia may destroy some body cells, reducing their effectiveness in normal functioning, which might induce organ failure
  • Increased threat perception due to heightened senses
  • Rapid breathing
  • Extreme pupil narrowing which alters vision
  • Intense headaches
  • Anorexia – lack of appetite and poor eating habits
  • Poor health due to poor eating habits
  • Dryness of the skin, which might be marked by rashes and itching
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Extreme hallucinations and schizophrenia
  • Mouth or nose bleeding due to cavity destruction by the drug’s powder and smoke Involuntary twitching of muscles

Addiction

Use of Ritalin to treat narcolepsy or ADD/ ADHD or the abuse of the drug for leisure does not exempt it from developing addiction. Prolonged use of the drug (meaning long durations of use and somewhat increased dosages taken) reduces the body and brain’s response to the drug, forcing more intakes of the drug and in higher dosage to achieve the same effects that were achieved with lesser amounts. This is called increased tolerance for the drug. Abuse comprises taking the drug without any caution whatsoever, and this means that higher quantities and shorter durations, as well as faster means of administration are employed to intensify the effects of Ritalin.

This develops tolerance very fast. Tolerance is succeeded by physical dependence, which means the body is now used to the drug for its regular functioning. Addiction is an amplified version of physical dependence and is a perpetual physical and psychological compulsion for the presence of the drug in the body and mind and it goes beyond the will or conscious desires of the individual. Any absence of the drug, whether temporary or permanent, elicits withdrawal symptoms (most of which are fatal if not properly managed).

Withdrawal

This is the process of quitting or reducing the intake of the drug. This is sometimes intentionally carried out for the many negative effects it has on the individual and on society.

Ritalin withdrawal symptoms

These may include:

  • Slowed heart rate and reduced blood pressure
  • Intense headaches
  • Extreme hallucinations
  • Paranoia
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pains
  • Malfunctioning organs (liver, kidney etc.) and the list continues.

Ritalin overdose

A Ritalin overdose occurs when Ritalin levels in the blood reach lethal levels. It may be characterized by a ruptured heart or blood vessels, due to the very high heart beat destruction of the kidneys, liver, lungs and other organs, bluish skin due to lack of circulation, slowed heart beat and weak pulse, an indication of a failing heart, falling into a coma, realistic hallucinations etc. all these points only communicate one point that addiction is a scourge in the society which must be rooted out soonest.

Talking of rooting addiction out it is important that we seek the services of not just professionals but experienced ones. For instance Dr. Dalal Akoury is not just a professional in her own right but an experienced one for that matter. She is the founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Center, a facility that has been very helpful to many addiction victims globally. Remember we want to kick out this scourge out of our society therefore a visit to this facility and meeting doctor Akoury and her team of experts will be the best you can do not just for yourself but to the society as well. Dr. Akoury is offering her exclusive NER Recovery Treatment to everybody including physicians and health care professionals through training, clinical apprenticeships, webinars and seminars. Welcome and be part of the endless list of beneficiaries in this truly successful and fast addiction recovery treatment.

Ritalin Addiction and Abuse-Withdrawal and Treatment

 

 

 

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