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Fetal Cells: Enhanced Efficiency And Effectiveness For Wound Healing.

Fetal Cells: Enhanced Efficiency And Effectiveness For Wound Healing

“Extensive burns and full thickness skin wounds can be devastating to patients, even when treated. There are an estimated 500,000 burns treated in the United States each year. The overall mortality rate for burn injury was 4.9 % between 1998 and 2007 and medical costs for burn treatments approach $2 billion per year,” Owan TE, Hodge D.O., Herges R.M, et al. (2006).

These statistics could as well be over 11 million injuries per year as claimed by some medical reports. Other than burns, full-thickness chronic wounds also claims a large number of patients and despite technological development of therapeutic approaches, healing rates remain way below 50 % of success.

Patients with the non-healing chronic wounds are as well estimated at about 7 million per year in the US alone. Yearly costs on the other hand continue to rise, the figure is currently approaching $25 billion. Patient survival is reportedly inversely proportional to the amount of time required to recover from such a chronic wound and to stabilize.

wound-healing

Those with severe burns of between or more than 15–20 % total their body surface area are also likely to go into shock without rapid treatment. In addition, without sufficient and or rapid fluid resuscitation, patient conditions deteriorate and mortality rates increase steeply.

Inadequate therapeutic programs often result in long-term patient complications including open wounds, prominent scars, prolonged pain, high temperature sensitivity, loss of feeling to touch and or itching.

Patients who suffer from such burns and or chronic wounds benefit from prompt treatments that result in appropriate closure and or protection of the wounds. Burn patients in particular, who receive delayed treatments, are usually subject to prolonged therapeutic care that has long-term negative physiological side effects.

Recent medical advancements have been made to handle wound healing; however, the generally accepted and practiced treatment approach still remains an autologous split-thickness skin graft. This involves extracting a piece of skin with the goal of removing stem cells from a minor surgical site on the patient’s body, stretching the skin, and re-applying the graft on the burn or chronic wound.

Stem cells are unspecialized cells in the body that majorly bear two specific characteristics. They have the capacity to replicate themselves indefinitely and have the ability to replace and or repair nearly all body tissues as directed.

Stem cells extracted from the amniotic fluid, (AFS) are reportedly a very rich cell source for use in regenerative therapy due to their high proliferation capacity, immune-modulatory activity and multipotency.

AFS also have the capacity to modulate inflammatory responses and secrete therapeutic cytokines. Because of these characteristics, AFS cells have been explored for treatments in wound healing and skin regeneration among similar therapeutic care.

These attempts have over time been backed by relevant scientific studies that increasingly indicate AFS cells are effective in accelerating healing of skin in embryonic environments and more recently in treating wounds in adults. More scientific evidence also points to the fact delivered cells are often temporary, that is, do not permanently integrate into final skin tissue.

Instead, they hide a portfolio of effective growth factors very vital to the skin regeneration and angiogenesis, suggesting a trophic ability of enhancing skin and or wound healing.

These initial pieces of scientific studies suggest delivery of AFS cells have the potential to be an effective cell treatment for enabling wound healing and should be considered for clinical trials and use in treating skin wounds in patients.

While this treatment indicates the ability to yield a reasonably good therapeutic outcome, if the wound is extensive, the number and size of donor sites may be limited, making autographs difficult to use in cases that require rapid and or aggressive measures to save the wounded patient’s life.

Alternatively, allografts may be used but the option suffers a critical need of immuno-suppressive drugs so as to prevent body immune rejection of the graft. This limitation has thus caused the creation of noncellular dermal substitutes, which most often comprises a polymeric scaffold.

They include skin regeneration template and Biobrane among others. Even though such polymeric scaffolds result in improved wound healing, they are costly to produce and more often result in relatively poor temporary outcomes.

Recent developments in tissue engineering have also led to more complex biological skin parallels that may yield more suitable alternative wound care options for patients. These include: cellularized graft-like products such as dermagraft, Apligraf (Organogenesis), and TransCyte, (Advanced BioHealing) among others.

The products are commonly polymer scaffold patches that are planted with human fibroblasts and cultured in vitro prior to their application. Unfortunately, these grafts are also expensive to produce, and as allografts, can suffer from the same immunological setbacks mentioned earlier.

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This topic can go on and on. It is actually very interesting but it would not be possible to include everything in one article. However more information can be found at www.awaremednetwork.com. Dr. Dalal Akoury M.D., M.P.H., who is also a family physician and has many years of experience in integrative medicine will be of great assistance.

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Fetal Cells: Enhanced Efficiency And Effectiveness For Wound Healing.

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Role in Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular diseaseThe use of stem cells in treatment of various diseases has been given lots of consideration in the recent past. scientists have been busy doing researches trying to find out if the stem cell therapy which is termed by many as the medical miracle of the 21century can be a break in treatment of the diseases that have proved stubborn to conventional treatment methods. Stem cells have various properties that other cells do not have and this is the major reason why they have been in the lips of every regenerative doctor. There are different types of stem cells but the mesenchymal stem cells have been the major focus of integrative medicine practitioners.

Degenerative diseases are known to wreak havoc in the body’s ability to self-renew and rejuvenate. They affect the way the nervous system works causing a breakdown in the communication between the nerves which eventually causes various ailments. Degenerative diseases have not been very easy to treat in the past but with stem cell therapy, there is hope for not only degenerative diseases but also the much dreaded cardiovascular diseases as well.

Why mesenchymal stem cells?

The mesenchymal stem cells are not sought after for nothing. They have a lot to offer especially in this age when degenerative diseases are enslaving many people and the conventional medicine is not offering the much needed break. Mesenchymal stem cells are sourced from either the adipose tissues or from the bone marrows and are described as a rare type of cells which are multi-potent and rich in medicinal properties. The unique properties of the mesenchymal stem cells have made them a target as therapy for various diseases and currently they have been used for treatment of arthritis among other conditions. They have been found to be also very effective in moderating the functions of dendritic cells, immune cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocyte or macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils.

Just like the rest of the Stem cells, the mesenchymal stem cells are precursors of all cells and have the ability of forming cells of other types such as the hematopoietic, bone, endocrine organs, nervous and cardiovascular system, and cartilage and muscle tissue. It is the unique ability of the mesenchymal to shift shape and form other cells that they have been targeted for treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Research on Mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac diseases treatment

Cardiac diseases have caused many deaths and are still among the leading causes of death worldwide. however the conventional medicine such as myocardial infarction haven’t helped much in treatment of these diseases and this led to the research on the possibility of the stem cells being used for this course. The Hematopoietic stem cells were the first to be researched on and used for clinical trial. In some trials the therapy worked while in others they didn’t give the much expected results and this led to consideration of other stem cell types.

The mesenchymal stem cells were the most promising of all the types owing to their strong paracrine function, which gives them potential immunomodulatory effects via anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions. It is this property that may give them the ability to counteract the pathological mechanisms that are involved in various cardiac diseases. They can also be trans-differentiated into cardiomyocytes.

In 1999, Makino S and his colleagues first demonstrated the differentiation of MSCs into cardiomyocytes in vitro. Their research concluded that Cardiomyocytes can be generated from marrow stromal cells in vitro. Makino and his colleagues aren’t the only scientists to have worked on viability of MSCs ability to treat cardiac diseases, Wang JA and his colleagues did a trial that involved transplanting Allograftic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into heart infarcted model of rabbit to renovate infarcted heart, they found out that the rabbits who had mesenchymal stem cells transplant had a lower mortality rate of 16.7% as opposed to the controls whose mortality rate was at 35%.

cardiovascular diseaseAnother study was done in 2005 by Hatton N and his counterparts, it involved transplanting purified cardiomyocytes differentiated from bone marrow MSCs in vitro into adult mouse hearts, after three months the transplanted cells had survived and were sloping in parallel to the cardiomyocytes of the recipient heart. These and other animal trials have all showed the ability of mesenchymal stem cells in treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Through research, there has been a growing body of evidence that the mesenchymal stem cells have the multiple paracrine effects that even without cell replacement can affect cardiac remodeling, angiogenesis and cytoprotection hence are clinically beneficial.

The hopes were held even higher after another researcher; Ohnishi S showed that the mesenchymal stem cells have a role in inhibiting cardiac fibrosis by regulation of collagen synthesis by cardiac fibroblasts, as well as their effects on fibroblast proliferation.

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The mesenchymal stem cell therapy are the medical miracle of the 21century, you need to be updated their applicability in treatment of various diseases, visit www.awaremednetwork.com for more information about bone marrow transplant and stem cell transplantation. Dr. Dalal Akoury is an experienced doctor in integrative medicine; she will be able to assist. From the same website you can also visit http://www.integrativeaddiction2015.com and be updated on upcoming Integrative Addiction Conference 2015. The conference will deliver unique approaches to telling symptoms of addiction and how to assist patients of addiction.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Role in Cardiovascular Diseases

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Why are Stem Cells Important?

What are stem cells, and why are they important?

Stem cellStem cells are very special, powerful cells found in both humans and also in other animals. Stem cells are the precursors of all cells in the human body. What makes stem cells special is that they are regenerative and malleable. They have the ability to replicate themselves and to repair and replace other tissues in the human body. Some tissues, like skin, need constant renewal, which could not take place without skin stem cells. Other stem cells repair damage to the body’s tissues, for example, rebuilding damaged or degenerating muscle tissue. New research also indicates that stem cell malfunction or damage may be responsible for certain cancers and even muscular-degeneration diseases like Muscular Dystrophy.

Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells in the body. All stem cells have three general features that make them different from other body cells. These features are: they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. They are unspecialized and they can give rise to specialized cell types. Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. Unlike muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells which do not normally replicate themselves, stem cells may replicate many times, or proliferate.

The stem cells have a unique ability to divide and become more specialized cells forming cells like bone, blood, or muscle. It is this ability that makes them attractive agents in many areas of medicine. They can therefore be used to fight very many diseases in the regenerative medicine. Another advantage of stem cell therapy treatments is that autologous stem cell transport is made possible. This means that a person may be treated by doctors harvesting the stem cells from the patient and having the stem cells reimplanted into the same patient after finding out what was lacking in the patient. This reduces risks of infection as well as rejection which are helpful to the patient.

Importance of stem cells

the stem cells are very important cells in the body and have been since targeted for treatment of degenerative diseases. They have been called the center pieces of regenerative medicine. Medicine that involves growing new cells, tissues and organs to replace or repair those damaged by injury, disease or aging. there ability to proliferate into other cells of the body like the bone and muscle tissues have made them a priority in treatment of various degenative diseases like aging and even osteoporosis among others. here is how stem cells work in treatment of various diseases.

Rejuvenation– the stem cells can be used in rejuvenation process. through rejuvenation the bodies healing ability is boosted. Typically, the body is programmed to naturally repair itself that is why after you get a cut you can stay without going to hospital but still get healed within a very short time. However there other crucial organs that when damaged do not easily get repaired. When the body’s cells cannot get differentiated to give rise to new healthy cells and heal the damaged cell then there is a problem. According to Mayo clinic the cells that were once thought of as terminally differentiated including the heart, lungs and nerves which are more specialized are able to remodel as they possess ability to self-renew. However researchers are still working to come up with strategies through which the ability of these cells to self-heal can be enhanced.

Stem cellReplacement– here the stem cells can be used to replace the damaged cells.in degenerative diseases like osteoporosis the damaged tissues can be replaced with fresh stem cells that will proliferate into more functional bone issues and relieve the system of the damaged tissues. the stem cells can be transplanted in autologous manner where the stem cells will be harvested in the adipose or the bone marrow and be used to replace the affected cells in organ. with autologues stem cell transplant the issue of donor is not a problem neither are there issues of rejection nor the need for immunosuppression .

Regeneration- Through regeneration the stem cells are delivered to diseased tissues or organs, where they will ultimately restore tissue and organ function. This can be done through cell-based therapy or by using cell products, such as growth factors. Bone marrow transplants are an example of regeneration. Regeneration aims to awaken cells that are not functional or have malfunctions. With stem cell therapy there is hope for affordable healthcare solutions that heal the body whole without life threatening side effects.

Stem cells are a cutting edge

Stem cells are capable of self-renewing giving rise to several copies of themselves. They also have the capability of shifting shape and changing type, therefore they can be used to form the cells that are damaged and restore the functions of the damaged tissues. The stem cells can be used to replace the cells that have malfunctioned due to structural damage. The amazing part of the stem cell differentiation is that when a stem cell divides both the daughter cell and the parent stem cells have the potential to differentiate into different cells or to still remain as stem cells. Owing to this ability of stem cells to differentiate into more specialized cells, they can rebuild lost blood vessels, reverse scarring, regenerate damaged nerves, and bring back the healthy you.

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Stem cell therapy has a lot to offer to patients, Visit us at AWAREmed Health and Wellness Resource Centre at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) an expert in integrative and regenerative medicine will be able to help.

What are stem cells, and why are they important?

 

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Unique Properties of Stem Cells

What Are The Unique Properties Of All Stem Cells?

Stem CellsThe stem cells have been hailed for their efficacy in treatment of certain diseases especially those that are degenerative in nature like the Parkinson’s disease, osteoarthritis and even the Huntington’s disease. To accomplish all its medicinal capabilities the stem cells must have certain properties that are not present in other body cells. They therefore differ from other cells in the body. The stem cells are available majorly in the bone marrows and the adipose tissues but can also be harvested from placentas after a safe delivery. The stem cells have three general properties regardless of their source. These properties are; they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods; they are unspecialized; and they can give rise to specialized cell types. It is these distinct characteristics of the stem cells that make them effective in treatment of degenerative diseases.

The other cells found in the body like the nerve cells, the muscle cells and the blood cells are not able to replicate themselves unlike the stem cells that are able to proliferate after long periods of time. Typically, a starting population of stem cells that proliferates for many months in the laboratory can yield millions of cells. What is more is that the daughter cells are capable of long term self-renewal giving rise to more unspecialized cells.

Despite the vast research that has been done on the stem cells and their ability to treat certain diseases there are some information that are still required which we can only hope that researchers will one day find an answer to. These questions are as follows:

  • Scientists are trying to understand two fundamental properties of stem cells that relate to their long-term self-renewal:
  • Why can embryonic stem cells proliferate for a year or more in the laboratory without differentiating, but most adult stem cells cannot; and
  • What are the factors in living organisms that normally regulate stem cell proliferation and self-renewal?

When these answers are addressed there will be a valid explanation to how cell proliferation is regulated during normal embryonic development or during the abnormal cell division that leads to cancer. Such information would also enable scientists to grow embryonic and non-embryonic stem cells more efficiently in the laboratory to help in treatment of diseases.

The stem cells are unspecialized

Stem cells remain unspecialized even after long hours in the laboratory after getting harvested. The scientists have spent years of research trying to find out factors that make the stem cells unspecialized and differentiating into different cell types. It took two decades to learn how to grow human embryonic stem cells in the laboratory following the development of conditions for growing mouse stem cells. In a similar manner the scientists must first understand the signals that enable adult stem cell population to proliferate and remain unspecialized before they will be able to grow large numbers of unspecialized adult stem cells in the laboratory for medicinal use.

The stem cells are not specialized and hence are not able to perform specific functions. Unlike heart muscle cells, the stem cells are not able to pump blood through the body, they can neither carry oxygen molecules through the bloodstream like red blood cells nor can they kill pathogens like the white blood cells but they can give rise to more of all these cells; they can form bone, heart muscle cells, blood cells and even nerve cells. So they are then unspecialized cells that have the unique ability to give rise to specialized and more vital functional specialized cells.

Stem cellsThe process through which undifferentiated stem cells give rise to specialized cells is known as differentiation. It is through this process of differentiation that the stem cells become even more specialized. Scientists are just beginning to understand the signals inside and outside cells that trigger each step of the differentiation process. The internal signals are controlled by a cell’s genes, which are interspersed across long strands of DNA and carry coded instructions for all cellular structures and functions. In contrast, the external signals for cell differentiation include chemicals secreted by other cells, physical contact with neighboring cells, and certain molecules in the microenvironment. The interaction of signals during differentiation causes the cell’s DNA to acquire epigenetic marks that restrict DNA expression in the cell and can be passed on through cell division giving rise to more specialized cells.

There are however some questions that should be addressed and these may include; Are the internal and external signals for cell differentiation similar for all kinds of stem cells? Can specific sets of signals be identified that promote differentiation into specific cell types? Finding answers to these questions may help scientists to find new ways to control stem cell differentiation in the laboratory, thereby growing cells or tissues that can be used for specific purposes such as cell-based therapies or drug screening.

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With these distinct characteristics of the stem cells especially their ability to give rise to different specialized cell types, the stem cells are a cutting edge to treatment of diseases. Degenerative diseases have debilitated many people but it is treatable. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert in integrative medicine and a founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Center located at Myrtle Beach South Caroline. Visit her for more information on most lifestyle diseases.

What Are The Unique Properties Of All Stem Cells?

 

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Treating ALS With Stem Cell Therapy

Stem Cell Therapy As a possible Treatment of ALS

ALSALS is an acronym that stands for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, it is also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. It is rapidly progressive, fatal neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells which are responsible for controlling voluntary muscles actions that we can control the leg, face and arm muscles. ALS is the most common disease of all the diseases in group known as motor neuron diseases, which are characterized by the gradual degeneration and death of motor neurons. These are fatal diseases that have not been very easy to treat.

The motor neurons are very vital communication links between the nervous system and the voluntary muscles of the body that are located in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord. Messages from motor neurons in the brain are transmitted to motor neurons in the spinal cord and from them to particular muscles. This communication is interrupted by ALS which leads to degeneration of both the upper and the lower motor neurons and thus messages are not sent to muscles. After sometime the malfunctioned muscles will begin to waste away which eventually leading to the brain losing its ability to control voluntary movements.

Symptoms of ALS

ALS in most cases begins subtly and might be assumed but over a time it escalates into more devastating symptoms. some of the earliest symptoms that ALS victims have to endure include fasciculations, cramps, tight and stiff muscles, muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg, slurred and nasal speech and difficulty chewing or swallowing. The physicians often use these symptoms as suspicion of ALS.

The symptoms will show on the part of the body where the muscle is affected most. however most of the times the symptoms often first show in the arms and hands and they will feel their arms and hands fail them in performing simple tasks such as lifting a spoon, dressing up, unbuckling the belt, writing or even opening a door. Otherwise the symptoms may show with the legs becoming affected leading to tripping and tumbling over. When the symptoms begin with either the arms or the feet, it is known as limb onset ALS but when the symptoms first show as slurred speech it is termed as bulbar onset ALS.

Once the disease has begun either through limb onset or bulbar onset, the muscle atrophy will spread to the rest of the body parts as the disease progresses. Such problems as swallowing, forming words, speaking and even moving will be experienced.

ALS is a serious disease but since now there is no conventional treatment that addresses the damage that is caused, therefore till now there is no cure for ALS and other motor neuron diseases. The only treatment available today for ALS focuses only on relieving the symptoms and improving the quality of life. Drugs that are currently used like Riluzole are not very effective and can never cure the disease.

Can stem cells help in treatment of ALS?

ALSThe application of stem cells in treatment of various degenerative diseases has become so popular over a time. With ALS however the cause of muscle atrophy is not even known but still ALS is a degenerative disease and therefore if there is to be a treatment that is effective then it has to focus on correcting the damage on the motor neurons. There are researchers still working to find out what causes ALS and whether the stem cells can be used to treat ALS and other motor neuron diseases. There are different types of stem cells but mesenchymal stem cells have generated a lot of interest in researchers for their ability to heal.

Research on stem cells for treating ALS

The fact that the motor neurons are located in the brain and in the spinal cord make it very complicated to do research on the damaged cells. However there are some researchers who have braved this barrier to find some meaningful findings. A team of scientists at Harvard University in the USA used skin cells from an ALS patient to tackle this menace. The researchers began by first transforming the skin cells into induced pluripotent stem cells lab-grown stem cells that imitate the actions of embryonic stem cells that have the ability to make all the different cells of the body. After growing these stem cells, the researchers then used them to grow motor neurons that had been damaged by ASL. This research was done in 2008.

Using stem cells as a therapy for ALS

The stem cells have the ability to form other cells and tissues of the body hence can be used to replace the damaged cells. They have also been found to be effective in regeneration of cells and hence are very useful in treatment of degenerative medicine. However there has been a thought that just transplanting lab grown stem cells may not help a great deal in healing those suffering from ALS. It is thought that there are a lot of factors that cause ALS, the transplanted stem cells may also be damaged. However there is still need for research in this area to unearth the possibility of the stem cells to treat the ALS.

Finally, Degenerative diseases have debilitated many people but it is treatable. Dr. Dalal Akoury (MD) is an expert in integrative medicine and a founder of AWAREmed Health and Wellness Center located at Myrtle Beach South Caroline. Visit her for more information on most lifestyle diseases.

Stem Cell Therapy As a possible Treatment of ALS

 

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